# Absolutely Convergent Series is Convergent

## Theorem

Let $V$ be a Banach space with norm $\left\Vert{\cdot}\right\Vert$.

Let $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ be an absolutely convergent series in $V$.

Then $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ is convergent.

## Proof

That $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ is absolutely convergent means that $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty \left\Vert{a_n}\right\Vert$ converges in $\R$.

Hence the sequence of partial sums is a Cauchy sequence by Convergent Sequence is Cauchy Sequence.

Now let $\epsilon > 0$.

Let $N \in \N$ such that for all $m, n \in \N$, $m \ge n \ge N$ implies that:

- $\displaystyle \sum_{k \mathop = n + 1}^m \left\Vert{a_k}\right\Vert = \left\vert{\sum_{k \mathop = 1}^m \left\Vert{a_k}\right\Vert - \sum_{k \mathop = 1}^n \left\Vert{a_k}\right\Vert }\right\vert < \epsilon$

This $N$ exists because the sequence is Cauchy.

Now observe that, for $m \ge n \ge N$, one also has:

\(\displaystyle \left\Vert{\sum_{k \mathop = 1}^m a_k - \sum_{k \mathop = 1}^n a_k}\right\Vert\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \left\Vert{\sum_{k \mathop = n + 1}^m a_k}\right\Vert\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(\le\) | \(\displaystyle \sum_{k \mathop = n + 1}^m \left\Vert{a_k}\right\Vert\) | Triangle inequality for $\left\Vert{\cdot}\right\Vert$ | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(<\) | \(\displaystyle \epsilon\) |

It follows that the sequence of partial sums of $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ is Cauchy.

As $V$ is a Banach space, this implies that $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ converges.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof for Real Numbers

By the definition of absolute convergence, we have that $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty \size {a_n}$ is convergent.

From the Comparison Test we have that $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty a_n$ converges if and only if:

- $\forall n \in \N_{>0}: \size {a_n} \le b_n$

where $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty b_n$ is convergent.

So substituting $\size {a_n}$ for $b_n$ in the above, the result follows.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof for Complex Numbers

Let $z_n = u_n + i v_n$.

We have that:

\(\displaystyle \cmod {z_n}\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \sqrt { {u_n}^2 + {v_n}^2}\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(>\) | \(\displaystyle \sqrt { {u_n}^2}\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(>\) | \(\displaystyle \size {u_n}\) |

and similarly:

- $\cmod {z_n} > \size {v_n}$

From the Comparison Test, the series $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty u_n$ and $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty v_n$ are absolutely convergent.

From Absolutely Convergent Series is Convergent: Real Numbers, $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty u_n$ and $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty v_n$ are convergent.

By Convergence of Series of Complex Numbers by Real and Imaginary Part, it follows that $\displaystyle \sum_{n \mathop = 1}^\infty z_n$ is convergent.

$\blacksquare$