# Book:Irving M. Copi/Symbolic Logic/Fourth Edition

## Irving M. Copi: Symbolic Logic (4th Edition)

Published $\text {1973}$, Macmillan.

### Contents

Preface
$1$ Introduction: Logic and Language
1.1 What Is Logic?
1.2 The Nature of Argument
1.3 Truth and Validity
1.4 Symbolic Logic
$2$ Arguments Containing Compound Statements
2.1 Simple and Compound Statements
2.2 Conditional Statements
2.3 Argument Forms and Truth Tables
2.4 Statement Forms
$3$ The Method of Deduction
3.1 Formal Proof of Validity
3.2 The Rule of Replacement
3.3 Proving Invalidity
3.4 Incompleteness of the Nineteen Rules
3.5 The Rule of Conditional Proof
3.6 The Rule of Indirect Proof
3.7 Proofs of Tautologies
3.8 The Strengthened Rule of Conditional Proof
3.9 Shorter Truth Table Technique — Reductio ad Absurdum Method
$4$ Propositional Functions and Quantifiers
4.1 Singular Propositions and General Propositions
4.2 Proving Validity: Preliminary Quantification Rules
4.3 Proving Invalidity
4.4 Multiply General Propositions
4.5 Quantification Rules
4.6 Logical Truths Involving Quantifiers
$5$ The Logic of Relations
5.1 Symbolizing Relations
5.2 Arguments Involving Relations
5.3 Some Attributes of Relations
5.4 Identity and the Definite Description
5.5 Predicate Variables and Attributes of Attributes
$6$ Deductive Systems
6.1 Definition and Deduction
6.2 Euclidean Geometry
6.3 Formal Deductive Systems
6.4 Attributes of Formal Deductive Systems
6.5 Logistic Systems
$7$ A Propositional Calculus
7.1 Object Language and Metalanguage
7.2 Primitive Symbols and Well Formed Formulas
7.3 Axioms and Demonstrations
7.4 Independence of the Axioms
7.5 Development of the Calculus
7.6 Deductive Completeness
$8$ Alternative Systems and Notations
8.1 Alternative Systems of Logic
8.2 The Hilbert-Ackermann System
8.3 The Use of Dots as Brackets
8.4 A Parenthesis-Free Notation
8.5 The Stroke and Dagger Operators
8.6 The Nicod System
$9$ A First-Order Function Calculus
9.1 The New Logistic System $RS_1$
9.2 Development of $RS_1$
9.3 Duality
9.4 $RS_1$ and the 'Natural Deduction' Techniques
9.5 Normal Forms
9.6 Completeness of $RS_1$
9.7 $RS_1$ with Identity
Appendix A: Normal Forms and Boolean Expansions
Appendix B: The Algebra of Classes
Appendix C: The Ramified Theory of Types
Solutions to Selected Exercises
Special Symbols
Index

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## Source work progress

Correct the links to "/Fourth Edition" on all pages