Book:Merrilee H. Salmon/Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

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Merrilee H. Salmon: Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

Published $1995$, Harcourt Brace & Company

ISBN 0-15-543064-5.


Subject Matter


Contents

Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Third Edition
Chapter One. Introduction to Arguments
I. Introduction
II. Arguments
III. Recognizing Arguments
IV. Extended Arguments
V. Reconstructing Arguments
1. Incompletely Stated Arguments
2. Contextual Clues for Reconstructing Arguments
VI. Review
Chapter Two. Paying Special Attention to the Language of Arguments
I. Introduction
II. Ambiguity
III. Vagueness
IV. Definition
1. Ostensive Definition
2. Verbal Extensional Defunition
3. Intensional Definition
i. Definitions that Show How a Word Is Commonly Used
ii. Definitions that Introduce a New Word into the Language
iii. Definitions that Reduce Vagueness
iv. Definitions for Theoretical Purposes
v. Definitions Designed to Transfer Emotive Force
4. Syntactic Definitions and Implicit Definition
5. Operational Definitions
V. Review
Chapter Three. Deductive Arguments, Inductive Arguments, Fallacies
I. Introduction
II. Deductive Arguments
III. Inductive Arguments
IV. Fallacies
V. Review
Chapter Four. A Closer Look At Inductive Arguments
I. Introduction
II. Statistical Syllogisms
1. Form of Statistical Syllogisms
2. Standards for the Strength of Statistical Syllogisms
3. The Fallacy of Incomplete Evidence
4. Special Types of Statistical Syllogism
i. Arguments from Authority
ii. Arguments Against the Person (Argumentatum Ad Hominem)
iii. Arguments from Consensus
5. Missing Premisses in Statistical Syllogisms
6. An Incorrect Form of Inductive Argument
III. Arguments From Analogy
1. Form of Arguments from Analogy
2. Standards for the Strength of Analogical Arguments
3. Fallacies Associated with Analogical Arguments
4. Analogy in Archaeology and in Legal and Moral Reasoning
5. Analogy and the Slippery Slope
IV. Arguments Based on Samples
1. Preliminary Account of the Form of Arguments Based on Samples
2. Standards for the Strength of Inductive Generalizations
3. Fallacies Associated with Inductive Generalizations
4. The Revised Form of Inductive Generalization
V. Extended Inductive Arguments
VI. Pro and Con Arguments
VII. Review
Chapter Five. Causal Arguments
I. Introduction
II. Mill's Method for Establishing Causal Claims
1. The Method of Agreement
2. The Method of Difference
3. The Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
4. The Method of Concomitant Variation
5. The Method of Residues
III. Controlled Experiments
IV. Different Uses of "Cause"
V. Hume's Analysis of Causation
VI. Causal Fallacies
1. Confusing Coincidental Relationships with Causes (Post Hoc)
2. Ignoring a Common Cause
3. Confusing Cause and Effect
4. Genetic Fallacy: Reasons and Causes
5. Confusing the Harm or Benefits that Result from Holding a Belief with Evidence for It
VII. Review
Chapter Six. Probabilities and Inductive Logic
I. Introduction
II. The Rules of Probability
III. Decision Theory: Using Probabilities to Plan a Course of Action
1. Decisions Under Risk
2. Decisions Under Certainty
3. Decisions Under Uncertainty
4. The Prisoner's Dilemma
5. The Petersburg Paradox
6. The Law of Averages and the Gamblers' Fallacy
IV. Review
Chapter Seven. Deductive Reasoning: Conditional Arguments
I. Introduction
II. Properties of Deductive Arguments: Validity and the Importance of Logical Form
III. Conditional Sentences
1. The Structure of Conditionals
2. The Truth of Conditionals
IV. Conditional Arguments
1. Affirming the Antecedent
2. Denying the Consequent
3. Unstated Premisses in Conditional Arguments
V. Fallacies Associated with Conditional Arguments
1. Fallacious (Invalid) Forms of Argument
2. Invalid and Fallacious Arguments
VI. Review
Chapter Eight. Confirmation of Hypotheses
I. Hypotheses
II. The Hypothetico-Deductive Method
III. Complexities in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method
1. Auxiliary Hypotheses
2. Alternative Hypotheses
3. Form of Inductive Arguments of Confirmation
4. Confirming a Causal Hypothesis
IV. Incremental Confirmation and "Absolute" Confirmation
V. Disconfirmation
1. Crucial Tests
2. Disconfirming a Causal Hypothesis
VI. Bayesian Confirmation
1. Bayes's Theorem
VII. Review
Chapter Nine. Arguments in Which Validity Depends on Connections Among Sentences
I. Introduction
1. Hypothetical Syllogisms
2. Dilemmas
3. False Dilemmas
4. Disjunctive Syllogisms
II. Symbolizing Connectives
III. Symbolizing English Sentences
IV. Determining the Truth Values of Compound Sentence Forms
V. Determining the Validity or Invalidity of Argument Forms
VI. Tautologies, Self-Contradictions, and Contingent Sentences
VII. Logic and Computers: Application of Truth-Functional Logic
1. Representation of Numbers
i. Decimal System
ii. Binary System
2. Binary Addition
3. Constructing an Adder
4. Disjunctive Normal Forms
VIII. Review
Chapter Ten. Categorical Syllogisms
I. Introduction
II. Categorical Sentences
1. Relationships among Categorical Sentences - the Traditional Square of Opposition
2. Existential Import and the Modern Square of Opposition
III. Translating English Sentences Into Standard Categorical Forms
1. A Sentences
2. E Sentences
3. I Sentences
4. O Sentences
IV. Testing for Validity With Venn Diagrams
V. Distribution of Terms
VI. Rules for Testing the Validity of Syllogisms
1. Three Rules for Valid Syllogisms
2. Examples of Using the Rules to Test Validity
VII. Reducing the Number of Terms in Syllogisms
IX. Quasi-Syllogisms and Sorites
1. Quasi-Syllogisms
2. Sorites
X. Review
Chapter Eleven. Arguments in Which Validity Depends on Relationships
I. Introduction
II. Examples of Relational Arguments
III. Important Properties of Relationships
IV. Using Quantifiers to Express Relationships
1. Symbolizing the Universal Quantifier
2. Symbolizing the Existential Quantifier
3. Symbolizing Relational Sentences
4. Multiple Quantifiers
5. The Fallacy of Every and All
V. Symbolizing Arguments
VI. Review
Appendix One. Proof Method for Truth-Functional Logic
I. Introduction
II. The Proof Method
III. Justifying the Rules of Inference
Appendix Two. Index of Fallacies
Bibliography
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises
Index