# Cauchy's Convergence Criterion/Complex Numbers/Lemma 1

## Contents

## Lemma for Cauchy's Convergence Criterion on Complex Numbers

Let $\sequence {z_n}$ be a complex sequence.

Let $\NN$ be the domain of $\sequence {z_n}$.

Let $x_n = \map \Re {z_n}$ for every $n \in \NN$.

Let $y_n = \map \Im {z_n}$ for every $n \in \NN$.

Then $\sequence {z_n}$ is a (complex) Cauchy sequence if and only if $\sequence {x_n}$ and $\sequence {y_n}$ are (real) Cauchy sequences.

## Proof

### Necessary Condition

Let $\sequence {z_n}$ be a Cauchy sequence.

This means that, for a given $\epsilon > 0$:

- $\exists N: \forall m, n \in \NN: m, n \ge N: \cmod {z_n - z_m} < \epsilon$

We have, for every $m, n \ge N$:

\(\displaystyle \cmod {x_n − x_m}\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {\map \Re {z_n − z_m} }\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(\le\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {z_n − z_m}\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(<\) | \(\displaystyle \epsilon\) |

Thus $\sequence {x_n}$ is a Cauchy sequence by definition.

A similar argument shows that $\sequence {y_n}$ is a Cauchy sequence.

$\Box$

### Sufficient Condition

Let $\sequence {x_n}$ and $\sequence {y_n}$ be Cauchy sequences.

This means for $\sequence {x_n}$ that, for a given $\epsilon > 0$:

- $\exists N_1: \forall m, n \in \NN: m, n \ge N_1: \cmod {x_n - x_m} < \dfrac \epsilon 2$

Also, for $\sequence {y_n}$:

- $\exists N_2: \forall m, n \in \NN: m, n \ge N_2: \cmod {y_n - y_m} < \dfrac \epsilon 2$

Let $N = \max \paren {N_1, N_2}$.

Let $i = \sqrt {-1}$ denote the imaginary unit.

We have, for every $m, n \ge N$:

\(\displaystyle \cmod {z_n − z_m}\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {x_n + i y_n − \paren {x_m + i y_m} }\) | as $z_n = \map \Re {z_n} + i \map \Im {z_n}$ and $z_m = \map \Re {z_m} + i \map \Im {z_m}$ | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {x_n − x_m + i \paren {y_n − y_m} }\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(\le\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {x_n − x_m} + \cmod {i\paren {y_n − y_m} }\) | Triangle Inequality for Complex Numbers | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \cmod {x_n − x_m} + \cmod {y_n − y_m}\) | Definition of Complex Modulus | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(<\) | \(\displaystyle \frac \epsilon 2 + \cmod {y_n − y_m}\) | since $\cmod {x_n - x_m} < \dfrac \epsilon 2$ | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(<\) | \(\displaystyle \frac \epsilon 2 + \frac \epsilon 2\) | since $\cmod {y_n - y_m} < \dfrac \epsilon 2$ | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \epsilon\) |

Thus $\sequence {z_n}$ is a Cauchy sequence by definition.

$\blacksquare$