# Construction of Second Apotome

## Theorem

In the words of Euclid:

To find the second apotome.

## Proof Let $A$ be a rational straight line.

Let $GC$ be commensurable in length with $A$.

Therefore, by definition, $GC$ is also rational.

Let $DE$ and $EF$ be square numbers such that $DF = DE - EF$ is not square.

Then $ED : FD$ is not the ratio that a square number has to another square number.

Using Porism to Proposition $6$ of Book $\text{X}$: Magnitudes with Rational Ratio are Commensurable, let it be contrived that:

$FD : DE = CG^2 : GB^2$
$CG^2$ is commensurable with $GB^2$.

But $CG^2$ is rational.

Therefore $GB^2$ is rational.

Therefore $GB$ is rational.

We have that $GC^2 : GB^2$ is not the ratio that a square number has to another square number.

$GC$ is incommensurable in length with $GB$.

Both $GC$ and $GB$ are rational.

Therefore $GC$ and $GB$ rational straight lines which are commensurable in square only.

Therefore $BC$ is an apotome.

It remains to be shown that $BC$ is a second apotome.

Let $H$ be a straight line such that $H^2 = BG^2 - GC^2$.

We have that:

$ED : DF = BG^2 : GC^2$
$DE : EF = BG^2 : H^2$

But $DE$ and $EF$ are both square numbers.

So $DE$ has to $EF$ the ratio that a square number has to another square number.

Therefore $GB^2$ has to $H^2$ the ratio that a square number has to another square number.

$BG$ is commensurable in length with $H$.

We have that:

$BG^2 = GC^2 + H^2$

Therefore $BG^2$ is greater than $GC^2$ by the square on a straight line which is commensurable in length with $BG$.

Also, the annex $CG$ is commensurable in length with the rational straight line $A$.

Therefore, by definition, $BC$ is a second apotome.

$\blacksquare$

## Historical Note

This proof is Proposition $86$ of Book $\text{X}$ of Euclid's The Elements.