De Méré's Paradox/Historical Note
Historical Note on De Méré's Paradox
The Chevalier de Méré first raised this question in the $17$th century.
Empirical investigation (in other words: he found he was losing more money than he believed he ought to have been doing) caused him to rethink this.
Hence he posed this problem to his friend mathematician Blaise Pascal, who solved it.