Definite Integral from 0 to Half Pi of Odd Power of Sine x/Proof 1

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Theorem

$\displaystyle \int_0^{\frac \pi 2} \sin^{2 n + 1} x \rd x = \dfrac {\left({2^n n!}\right)^2} {\left({2 n + 1}\right)!}$


Proof

Let $I_n = \displaystyle \int_0^{\frac \pi 2} \sin^n x \rd x$.


Then:

\(\displaystyle I_{2 n + 1}\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n} {2 n + 1} I_{2 n - 1}\) Reduction Formula for Definite Integral of Power of Sine
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} } {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} } I_{2 n - 3}\) Reduction Formula for Definite Integral of Power of Sine again
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} \dotsm 2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} \dotsm 3} I_1\) Reduction Formula for Definite Integral of Power of Sine until the end
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} \dotsm 2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} \dotsm 3} \int_0^{\pi / 2} \sin x \rd x\) Definition of $I_n$
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} \dotsm 2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} \dotsm 3} \intlimits {-\cos x} 0 {\pi / 2}\) Primitive of Sine Function
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} \dotsm 2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} \dotsm 3} \paren {0 - \paren {-1} }\) Cosine of Right Angle and Cosine of Zero is One
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {2 n \paren {2 n - 2} \dotsm 2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n - 1} \dotsm 3}\)
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {\paren {2 n}^2 \paren {2 n - 2}^2 \dotsm 2^2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n} \paren {2 n - 1} \paren {2 n - 2} \paren {2 n - 3} \dotsm 3 \cdot 2}\) multiplying top and bottom by top
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {\paren {2 n}^2 n^2 \paren {n - 1}^2 \dotsm 1^2} {\paren {2 n + 1} \paren {2 n} \paren {2 n - 1} \paren {2 n - 2} \paren {2 n - 3} \dotsm 3 \cdot 2}\) extracting factor of $\left({2^n}\right)^2$ from the top
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \frac {\paren {2^n n!}^2} {\paren {2 n + 1}!}\) Definition of Factorial

$\blacksquare$