- Definition:Complex Plane, also known as the Argand plane or Gaussian plane, etc.
Source of Name
This entry was named for Jean-Robert Argand.
The Argand diagram appears in Jean-Robert Argand's self-published $1806$ work Essai sur une manière de représenter les quantités imaginaires dans les constructions géométriques (Essay on a method of representing imaginary quantities by geometric constructions).
This would have passed unnoticed by the mathematical community except that Legendre received a copy.
He had no idea who had published it (as Argand had failed to include his name anywhere in it).
His brother Jacques Français found it in his papers after his death in $1810$, and published it in $1813$ in the journal Annales de mathématiques pures et appliquées, announcing it as by an unknown mathematician.
By this time, however, Carl Friedrich Gauss had already himself invented the same concept.
It must be noted that this concept had in fact been invented by Caspar Wessel as early as $1787$, and been published in the paper Om directionens analytiske betegning by the Danish academy in $1799$.
Wessel's precedence is now universally recognised, but the term Argand Diagram has stuck.
- 1957: E.G. Phillips: Functions of a Complex Variable (8th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text I$: Functions of a Complex Variable: $\S 3$. Geometric Representation of Complex Numbers
- 1960: Walter Ledermann: Complex Numbers ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 2$. Geometrical Representations
- 1968: Murray R. Spiegel: Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables ... (previous) ... (next): $6$: Graph of a Complex Number
- 1981: Murray R. Spiegel: Theory and Problems of Complex Variables (SI ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $1$: Complex Numbers: Graphical Representation of Complex Numbers
- 1989: Ephraim J. Borowski and Jonathan M. Borwein: Dictionary of Mathematics ... (previous) ... (next): Entry: Argand diagram or Gaussian plane
- 1998: David Nelson: The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics (2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry: Argand diagram (complex plane)
- 2008: David Nelson: The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics (4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry: Argand diagram (complex plane)
- 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry: Argand diagram