Definition:Conditional/Notational Variants
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Definition
Various symbols are encountered that denote the concept of the conditional:
Symbol | Origin | Known as |
---|---|---|
$p \implies q$ | Implies | |
$p \to q$ | often used when space is limited | |
$p \supset q$ | 1910: Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell: Principia Mathematica | hook or horseshoe |
$p \, \mathop {-\!\!\!<} q$ | Charles Sanders Peirce | sign of illation |
$\operatorname C p q$ | Łukasiewicz's Polish notation |
In mathematics, as opposed to works concerned purely with logic, it is usual to use "$\implies$", as then it can be ensured that it is understood to mean exactly the same thing when we use it in the "mathematical" context. There are other uses in mathematics for the other symbols.
Sign of Illation
The sign of illation $-\!\!\!<$ is a notation invented by Charles Sanders Peirce to denote the conditional operator.
Peirce derives $-\!\!\!<$ as a variant of the sign $\le$ for less than or equal to, so as to denote that:
- $A \mathop {-\!\!\!<} B$
represents the situation such that whenever a particular statement $A$ is true, then so is statement $B$.
Sources
- 1946: Alfred Tarski: Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences (2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S \text{II}.13$: Symbolism of sentential calculus
- 1972: A.G. Howson: A Handbook of Terms used in Algebra and Analysis ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$: Some mathematical language: Connectives
- 1972: Patrick Suppes: Axiomatic Set Theory (2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.2$ Logic and Notation
- 1973: Irving M. Copi: Symbolic Logic (4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $2$ Arguments Containing Compound Statements: $2.2$: Conditional Statements
- 1980: D.J. O'Connor and Betty Powell: Elementary Logic ... (previous) ... (next): Appendix
- 1988: Alan G. Hamilton: Logic for Mathematicians (2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$: Informal statement calculus: $\S 1.1$: Statements and connectives