# Definition:Product Notation (Algebra)

## Contents

## Definition

Let $\left({S, \times}\right)$ be an algebraic structure where the operation $\times$ is an operation derived from, or arising from, the multiplication operation on the natural numbers.

Let $\left({a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n}\right) \in S^n$ be an ordered $n$-tuple in $S$.

### Definition by Index

The composite is called the **product** of $\tuple {a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n}$, and is written:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{j \mathop = 1}^n a_j = \paren {a_1 \times a_2 \times \cdots \times a_n}$

### Definition by Inequality

The **product** of $\left({a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n}\right)$ can be written:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{1 \mathop \le j \mathop \le n} a_j = \left({a_1 \times a_2 \times \cdots \times a_n}\right)$

### Definition by Propositional Function

Let $R \left({j}\right)$ be a propositional function of $j$.

Then we can write:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{R \left({j}\right)} a_j = \text{ The product of all } a_j \text{ such that } R \left({j}\right) \text{ holds}$.

If more than one propositional function is written under the product sign, they must *all* hold.

## Infinite

Let an infinite number of values of $j$ satisfy the propositional function $\map R j$.

Then the precise meaning of $\displaystyle \prod_{\map R j} a_j$ is:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{\map R j} a_j = \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \prod_{\substack {\map R j \\ -n \mathop \le j \mathop < 0} } a_j} \times \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \prod_{\substack {\map R j \\ 0 \mathop \le j \mathop \le n} } a_j}$

provided that both limits exist.

If either limit *does* fail to exist, then the **infinite product** does not exist.

## Index Variable

Consider the **product**, in either of the three forms:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{j \mathop = 1}^n a_j \qquad \prod_{1 \mathop \le j \mathop \le n} a_j \qquad \prod_{R \left({j}\right)} a_j$

The variable $j$, an example of a bound variable, is known as the **index variable** of the product.

## Multiplicand

The set of elements $\left\{{a_j \in S: 1 \le j \le n, R \left({j}\right)}\right\}$ is called the **multiplicand**.

## Notation

The sign $\displaystyle \prod$ is called **the product sign** and is derived from the capital Greek letter $\Pi$, which is $\mathrm P$, the first letter of **product**.

## Vacuous Product

Take the composite expressed in product notation:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{\map R j} a_j$

where $\map R j$ is a propositional function of $j$.

Suppose that there are no values of $j$ for which $\map R j$ is true.

Then $\displaystyle \prod_{\map R j} a_j$ is defined as being $1$. **Beware:** *not* zero.

This composite is called a **vacuous product**.

This is because:

- $\forall a: a \times 1 = a$

where $a$ is a number.

Hence for all $j$ for which $\map R j$ is false, the product is unaffected.

This is most frequently seen in the form:

- $\displaystyle \prod_{j \mathop = m}^n a_j = 1$

where $m > n$.

In this case, $j$ can not at the same time be both greater than or equal to $m$ and less than or equal to $n$.

## Also see

- Results about
**product notation**can be found here.

## Historical Note

The originally investigation into the theory of infinite products was carried out by Leonhard Paul Euler.

- 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry:**product notation**