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Let $\sqrt [n] P$ denote the $n$th root of an expression.

Then $P$ is the radicand of $\sqrt [n] P$.

That is, it is the object whose $n$th root is to be taken.

Linguistic Note

The word radicand comes from:

the word radical, itself deriving from the Latin radix meaning root
the suffix -and, originating from the Latin gerundive form, loosely meaning that which needs to be ...

That is, radicand literally means that which needs to have its root extracted.