# Definition:Power (Algebra)/Real Number

(Redirected from Definition:Real Power)

## Definition

Let $x \in \R_{>0}$ be a (strictly) positive real number.

Let $r \in \R$ be a real number.

### Definition 1

We define $x^r$ as:

$x^r := \map \exp {r \ln x}$

where $\exp$ denotes the exponential function.

### Definition 2

Let $f : \Q \to \R$ be the real-valued function defined as:

$f \left({ q }\right) = x^q$

where $a^q$ denotes $a$ to the power of $q$.

Then we define $x^r$ as the unique continuous extension of $f$ to $\R$.

### Definition 3

First let $x > 1$.

Let $r$ be expressed by its decimal expansion:

$r = n \cdotp d_1 d_2 d_3 \ldots$

For $k \in \Z_{> 0}$, let $\psi_1, \psi_2 \in \Q$ be rational numbers defined as:

 $\displaystyle \psi_1$ $=$ $\displaystyle n + \sum_{j \mathop = 1}^k \frac {d_1} {10^k} = n + \frac {d_1} {10} + \cdots + \frac {d_k} {10^k}$ $\displaystyle \psi_2$ $=$ $\displaystyle \psi_1 + \dfrac 1 {10^k}$

Then $x^r$ is defined as the (strictly) positive real number $\xi$ defined as:

$\displaystyle \lim_{k \mathop \to \infty} x^{\psi_1} \le \xi \le x^{\psi_2}$

In this context, $x^{\psi_1}, x^{\psi_2}$ denote $x$ to the rational powers $\psi_1$ and $\psi_2$.

Next let $x < 1$.

Then $x^r$ is defined as:

$x^r := \left({\dfrac 1 x}\right)^{-r}$

Finally, when $x = 1$:

$x^r = 1$

### Complex Number

This definition can be extended to complex $r$:

Let $x \in \R$ be a real number such that $x > 0$.

Let $r \in \C$ be any complex number.

Then we define $x^r$ as:

$x^r := \map \exp {r \ln x}$

where $\exp$ denotes the complex exponential function.

## Examples

### Euler's Number to Power of Itself

$e^e \approx 15 \cdotp 15426 \, 22414 \, 79264 \, 18976 \, 0430 \ldots$

### Euler's Number to Power of its Negative

$e^{-e} \approx 0 \cdotp 06598 \, 80358 \, 45312 \ldots$

### Euler's Number to Power of its Reciprocal

$e^{1/e} \approx 1 \cdotp 44466 \, 78610 \, 09766 \, 13365 \, 83 \ldots$

### Euler's Number to Power of Euler-Mascheroni Constant

$e^\gamma \approx 1 \cdotp 78107 \, 24179 \, 90197 \, 9852 \ldots$

### Euler's Number to Power of Minus the Euler-Mascheroni Constant

$e^{-\gamma} \approx 0 \cdotp 56145 \, 94835 \, 66885 \ldots$

## Also see

• Results about powers can be found here.