Definition:Sphere

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Definition

Geometry

A sphere is a surface in solid geometry such that all straight lines falling upon it from one particular point inside it are equal.


In the words of Euclid:

When, the diameter of a semicircle remaining fixed, the semicircle is carried round and restored again to the same position from which it began to be moved, the figure so comprehended is a sphere.

(The Elements: Book $\text{XI}$: Definition $14$)


Topology

The $n$-dimensional sphere, or $n$-sphere, is the set:

$\Bbb S^n = \left\{{x \in \R^{n+1} : \left|{x - y}\right| = r}\right\}$

where $|\cdot|$ denotes the Euclidean distance.


Metric Space

Let $M = \struct{A, d}$ be a metric space or pseudometric space.

Let $a \in A$.

Let $\epsilon \in \R_{>0}$ be a strictly positive real number.


The $\epsilon$-sphere of $a$ in $M$ is defined as:

$\map {S_\epsilon} a = \set {x \in A: \map d {x, a} = \epsilon}$


Normed Division Ring

Let $\struct{R, \norm{\,\cdot\,}}$ be a normed division ring.

Let $a \in R$.

Let $\epsilon \in \R_{>0}$ be a strictly positive real number.


The $\epsilon$-sphere of $a$ in $\struct{R, \norm{\,\cdot\,}}$ is defined as:

$S_\epsilon \paren{a} = \set {x \in R: \norm{x - a} = \epsilon}$