Definition:Symmetry Group of Square

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Group Example

Let $\mathcal S = ABCD$ be a square.

SymmetryGroupSquare.png

The various symmetry mappings of $\mathcal S$ are:

The identity mapping $e$
The rotations $r, r^2, r^3$ of $90^\circ, 180^\circ, 270^\circ$ counterclockwise respectively about the center of $\mathcal S$.
The reflections $t_x$ and $t_y$ are reflections about the $x$ and $y$ axis respectively.
The reflection $t_{AC}$ is a reflection about the diagonal through vertices $A$ and $C$.
The reflection $t_{BD}$ is a reflection about the diagonal through vertices $B$ and $D$.

This group is known as the symmetry group of the square.


Cayley Table

The Cayley table of the symmetry group of the square can be written:

$\begin{array}{c|cccccc} & e & r & r^2 & r^3 & t_x & t_y & t_{AC} & t_{BD} \\ \hline e & e & r & r^2 & r^3 & t_x & t_y & t_{AC} & t_{BD} \\ r & r & r^2 & r^3 & e & t_{AC} & t_{BD} & t_y & t_x \\ r^2 & r^2 & r^3 & e & r & t_y & t_x & t_{BD} & t_{AC} \\ r^3 & r^3 & e & r & r^2 & t_{BD} & t_{AC} & t_x & t_y \\ t_x & t_x & t_{BD} & t_y & t_{AC} & e & r^2 & r^3 & r \\ t_y & t_y & t_{AC} & t_x & t_{BD} & r^2 & e & r & r^3 \\ t_{AC} & t_{AC} & t_x & t_{BD} & t_y & r & r^3 & e & r^2 \\ t_{BD} & t_{BD} & t_y & t_{AC} & t_x & r^3 & r & r^2 & e\\ \end{array}$


Also known as

The symmetry group of the square is also known as:

the dihedral group of order $8$ and denoted $D_4$
the octic group.


Some sources denote $D_4$ as ${D_4}^*$.


Also see


Sources