# Equivalence of Definitions of Kuratowski Closure Operator

## Contents

## Theorem

The following definitions of the concept of **Kuratowski Closure Operator** are equivalent:

### Definition 1

Let $S$ be a set.

Let $\cl: \powerset S \to \powerset S$ be a mapping from the power set of $S$ to itself.

Then $\cl$ is a **Kuratowski closure operator** if and only if it satisfies the following **Kuratowski closure axioms** for all $A, B \subseteq S$:

\((1)\) | $:$ | \(\displaystyle A \subseteq \map \cl A \) | $\cl$ is inflationary | |||||

\((2)\) | $:$ | \(\displaystyle \map \cl {\map \cl A} = \map \cl A \) | $\cl$ is idempotent | |||||

\((3)\) | $:$ | \(\displaystyle \map \cl {A \cup B} = \map \cl A \cup \map \cl B \) | $\cl$ preserves binary unions | |||||

\((4)\) | $:$ | \(\displaystyle \map \cl \O = \O \) |

### Definition 2

Let $S$ be a set.

Let $\cl: \powerset S \to \powerset S$ be a mapping from the power set of $S$ to itself.

Then $\cl$ is a **Kuratowski closure operator** if and only if it satisfies the following axioms for all $A, B \subseteq X$:

\((1)\) | $:$ | $\cl$ is a closure operator | ||||||

\((2)\) | $:$ | $\map \cl {A \cup B} = \map \cl A \cup \map \cl B$ | $\cl$ preserves binary unions | |||||

\((3)\) | $:$ | $\map \cl \O = \O$ |

## Proof

### Definition 2 implies Definition 1

A closure operator, by definition, is inflationary and idempotent.

Thus it follows immediately that Definition 2 implies Definition 1.

### Definition 1 implies Definition 2

Let $X$ be a set.

Let $\cl$ be a Kuratowski closure operator on $X$ by Definition 1.

By definition of closure operator, it remains to be proved that $\cl$ is increasing.

Let $A \subseteq B \subseteq X$.

Then by Definition 1 and Union with Superset is Superset:

- $\map \cl B = \map \cl {A \cup B} = \map \cl A \cup \map \cl B$

- $\map \cl A \subseteq \map \cl A \cup \map \cl B = \map \cl B$

$\blacksquare$