# Equivalence of Definitions of Upper Set

## Contents

## Theorem

Let $\left({S, \preceq}\right)$ be an ordered set.

Let $U \subseteq S$.

The following definitions of the concept of **Upper Set** are equivalent:

### Definition 1

$U$ is an **upper set** in $S$ if and only if:

- $\forall u \in U: \forall s \in S: u \preceq s \implies s \in U$

### Definition 2

$U$ is an **upper set** in $S$ if and only if:

- $U^\succeq \subseteq U$

where $U^\succeq$ is the upper closure of $U$.

### Definition 3

$U$ is an **upper set** in $S$ if and only if:

- $U^\succeq = U$

where $U^\succeq$ is the upper closure of $U$.

## Proof

### Definition 1 implies Definition 2

Suppose that:

- $\forall u \in U: \forall s \in S: u \preceq s \implies s \in U$

Let $k \in U^\succeq$.

Then by the definition of upper closure, there is some $u \in U$ such that $u \preceq k$.

Since $k \in U^\succeq \subseteq S$, the premise proves that $k \in U$.

Since this holds for all $k \in U^\succeq$, it follows that:

- $U^\succeq \subseteq U$

$\Box$

### Definition 2 implies Definition 3

Suppose that $U^\succeq \subseteq U$.

Let $u \in U$.

Then since $U \subseteq S$, $u \in S$ by the definition of subset.

Since $\preceq$ is reflexive:

- $u \preceq u$

Thus by the definition of upper closure:

- $u \in U^\succeq$.

Since this holds for all $u \in U$:

- $U \subseteq U^\succeq$

Thus by definition of set equality:

- $U^\succeq = U$

$\Box$

### Definition 3 implies Definition 1

Suppose that $U^\succeq = U$.

Let $u \in U$.

Let $s \in S$.

Let $u \preceq s$.

Then by the definition of upper closure, $s \in U$.

Thus we have shown that:

- $\forall u \in U: \forall s \in S: u \preceq s \implies s \in U$

$\blacksquare$