Existence of One-Sided Inverses on Natural Numbers whose Composition is Identity Mapping

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Theorem

Consider the set of natural numbers $\N$.

There exist mappings $f: \N \to \N$ and $g: \N \to \N$ such that:

$g \circ f = I_\N$

where:

$\circ$ denotes composition of mappings
$I_\N$ denotes the identity mapping on $\N$

such that neither $f$ nor $g$ are permutations on $\N$.


Proof

Let $f: \N \to \N$ be the mapping defined as:

$\forall x \in \N: \map f x = x + 1$

Let $g: \N \to \N$ be the mapping defined as:

$\forall x \in \N: \map g x = \begin {cases} x - 1 & : x > 0 \\ 0 & : x = 0 \end {cases}$

It is apparent by inspection that:

$f$ is injective

but

$f$ is not surjective, as there exists no $x \in \N$ such that $x + 1 = 0$

It is also apparent by inspection that:

$g$ is surjective

but

$g$ is not injective, as $\map g 0 = \map g 1 = 0$

Thus neither $f$ nor $g$ are bijective, and hence not permutations on $\N$.


However, it is also apparent by inspection that:

$g \circ f = I_\N$

$\blacksquare$


Sources