# Cancellation Laws

## Theorem

Let $G$ be a group.

Let $a, b, c \in G$.

Then the following hold:

Right cancellation law
$b a = c a \implies b = c$
Left cancellation law
$a b = a c \implies b = c$

That is, the group operation is cancellable.

Let $e$ be the identity element of $G$.

Then:

### Corollary 1

$g h = g \implies h = e$

### Corollary 2

$h g = g \implies h = e$

## Proof 1

Let $a, b, c \in G$ and let $a^{-1}$ be the inverse of $a$.

Suppose $b a = c a$.

Then:

 $\ds \paren {b a} a^{-1}$ $=$ $\ds \paren {c a} a^{-1}$ $\ds \leadsto \ \$ $\ds b \paren {a a^{-1} }$ $=$ $\ds c \paren {a a^{-1} }$ Definition of Associative Operation $\ds \leadsto \ \$ $\ds b e$ $=$ $\ds c e$ Definition of Inverse Element $\ds \leadsto \ \$ $\ds b$ $=$ $\ds c$ Definition of Identity Element

Thus, the right cancellation law holds.

The proof of the left cancellation law is analogous.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof 2

From its definition, a group is a monoid, all of whose elements have inverses and thus are invertible.

From Invertible Element of Monoid is Cancellable, it follows that all its elements are therefore cancellable.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof 3

Suppose $x = b a = c a$.

By Group has Latin Square Property, there exists exactly one $y \in G$ such that $x = y a$.

That is, $x = b a = c a \implies b = c$.

Similarly, suppose $x = a b = a c$.

Again by Group has Latin Square Property, there exists exactly one $y \in G$ such that $x = a y$.

That is, $a b = a c \implies b = c$.

$\blacksquare$