# Group of Order 105 has Normal Cyclic Subgroup of Index 3

## Theorem

Let $G$ be a group of order $105$.

Then $G$ has a normal cyclic subgroup $N$ such that:

- $\index G N = 3$

where $\index G N$ denotes the index of $N$ in $G$.

## Proof

Let $G$ be a group of order $105$ whose identity is $e$.

From Group of Order 105 has Normal Sylow 5-Subgroup or Normal Sylow 7-Subgroup, $G$ has either:

or:

Suppose $G$ has exactly one normal Sylow $5$-subgroup, which we will denote $P$.

Then $G / P$ is the quotient group of $G$ by $P$ and is of order $21$.

From Group of Order $p q$ has Normal Sylow $p$-Subgroup, $G / P$ has exactly one normal Sylow $7$-subgroup which we denote $N / P$.

From the Correspondence Theorem, $N$ is a normal subgroup of $G$ of order $7 \times 5 = 35$.

It follows from Group of Order 35 is Cyclic Group that $N$ is cyclic.

$\Box$

Now suppose that $G$ has exactly one normal Sylow $7$-subgroup, which we will denote $Q$.

Then $G / Q$ is the quotient group of $G$ by $Q$ and is of order $15$.

From Group of Order $p q$ has Normal Sylow $p$-Subgroup, $G / Q$ has exactly one normal Sylow $5$-subgroup which we denote $M / Q$.

From the Correspondence Theorem, $m$ is a normal subgroup of $G$ of order $5 \times 7 = 35$.

It follows from Group of Order 35 is Cyclic Group that $M$ is cyclic.

$\Box$

Both cases have been covered, and the existence of a normal cyclic subgroup of order $35$ has been proved.

The result follows by definition of the index of a subgroup.

$\blacksquare$

## Sources

- 1996: John F. Humphreys:
*A Course in Group Theory*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $12$: Applications of Sylow Theory: Exercise $2$