Implicitly Defined Real-Valued Function

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Let $F: \struct {\mathbf X' \subseteq \R^{n + 1} } \to \struct {\mathbb I' \subseteq \R}$ have continuous partial derivatives.

Let $\tuple {\mathbf x, z}$ denote an element of $\R^{n + 1}$, where $\mathbf x \in \R^n$ and $z \in \R$.

Suppose $\exists \tuple {\mathbf x_0, z_0} \in \mathbf X'$ such that:

$\map F {\mathbf x_0, z_0} = 0$
$\dfrac \partial {\partial z} \map F {\mathbf x_0, z_0} \ne 0$

Then there exists a unique mapping of the form:

$g: \mathbf X \to \mathbb I$

where $\mathbf X \subseteq \R^n$ contains $\mathbf x_0$ and $\mathbb I$ is an open real interval containing $z_0$, such that:

$\forall \mathbf x \in \mathbf X, z \in \mathbb I: \map F {\mathbf x, z} = 0 \iff z = \map g {\mathbf x}$

and $g$ itself has continuous partial derivatives.


This is a special case of the Implicit Function Theorem.