# Mathematician:Andrey Andreyevich Markov

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## Contents

## Mathematician

Russian mathematician best known for his work on stochastic processes.

Elder brother of Vladimir Andreyevich Markov, and father of Andrey Andreyevich Markov Jr.

## Nationality

Russian

## History

- Born: 14 June 1856, Ryazan, Russia
- 1866: Entered Saint Petersburg's fifth grammar school
- 1874: Began at the physico-mathematical faculty of St Petersburg University
- 1877: Awarded the gold medal for solving $\paren {1 + x^2} \dfrac {\d y} {\d x} = n \paren {1 + y^2}$
- 1886: Appointed extraordinary professor, elected adjunct to the Academy of Sciences
- 1890: After death of Viktor Bunyakovsky, became extraordinary member of the academy
- 1896: Elected ordinary member of the academy as the successor of Chebyshev
- 1905: Appointed merited professor.
- 1908: Rejected for political reasons from further teaching at Saint Petersburg University
- 1912: Requested (and received) excommunication from the Russian Orthodox Church in protest to Leo Tolstoy's excommunication
- 1913: Elected by the Council of Saint Petersburg as an honorary member of the university, but was not affirmed by Minister of Education
- 1917: After February revolution, his 1913 election was confirmed
- Died: 20 July 1922, Petrograd (now St Petersburg), Russia

## Theorems and Definitions

- Markov Brothers' Inequality (don't laugh) (with Vladimir Andreyevich Markov)
- Markov Chain
- Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods
- Gauss-Markov Theorem (with Carl Friedrich Gauss)
- Gauss-Markov Process (with Carl Friedrich Gauss)
- Hidden Markov Model
- Markov Information Source
- Markov Number, Markov Diophantine Equation, Markov Triple
- Markov Property
- Markov's Inequality
- Markov Process
- Markov Blanket
- Markov Condition
- Causal Markov Condition
- Markov Network
- Markov Decision Process
- Chebyshev-Markov-Stieltjes Inequalities (with Pafnuty Chebyshev and Thomas Stieltjes)
- Markov Algorithm
- Markov-Gibbs Properties (with Josiah Willard Gibbs)

Results named for **Andrey Andreyevich Markov** can be found here.

Definitions of concepts named for **Andrey Andreyevich Markov** can be found here.

## Publications

- 1877:
*About Integration of Differential Equations by Continuous Fractions with an Application to the Equation $\paren {1 + x^2} \frac {\d y} {\d x} = n \paren {1 + y^2}$* - April 1880:
*About Binary Quadratic Forms with Positive Determinant*(masters thesis) - 1882:
*Sur un question de Jean Bernoulli*(*Math. Ann.***Vol. 19**: 27 – 36) - 1884:
*About Some Applications of Algebraic Continuous Fractions*(doctoral thesis) - 1890:
*On a question by D.I. Mendeleev* - 1906:
*Распространение закона больших чисел на величины, зависящие друг от друга*

## Also known as

In Russian: **Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков**.

Various transliterations of his name can be seen, for example:

**Andrei**for**Andrey***Andreevich***for**Andreyevich

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Andrey Andreyevich Markov": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry:**Markov, Andrei Andreevich**(1856-1922) - 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry:**Markov, Andrei Andreevich**(1856-1922)