# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Nation/Britain

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## Contents

- 1 England
- 1.1 $\text {0}$ – $\text {1000}$
- 1.2 $\text {1101}$ – $\text {1500}$
- 1.3 $\text {1501}$ – $\text {1600}$
- 1.3.1 Thomas Harriot (c. 1560 – 1621)
- 1.3.2 John Blagrave (c. 1561 – 1611)
- 1.3.3 Edward Wright (1561 – 1615)
- 1.3.4 Henry Briggs (1561 – 1630)
- 1.3.5 William Oughtred (1574 – 1660)
- 1.3.6 Edmund Gunter (1581 – 1626)
- 1.3.7 Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)
- 1.3.8 Richard Delamain (1600 – 1644)
- 1.3.9 John Speidell (fl. 1600 – 1634)

- 1.4 $\text {1601}$ – $\text {1700}$
- 1.4.1 John Greaves (1602 – 1652)
- 1.4.2 John Pell (1611 – 1685)
- 1.4.3 John Wilkins (1614 – 72)
- 1.4.4 John Wallis (1616 – 1703)
- 1.4.5 William Brouncker (1620 – 1684)
- 1.4.6 John Graunt (1620 – 1674)
- 1.4.7 John Collins (1625 – 1683)
- 1.4.8 Joseph Moxon (1627 – 1691)
- 1.4.9 Isaac Barrow (1630 – 1677)
- 1.4.10 Edward Cocker (1631 – 1676)
- 1.4.11 Christopher Michael Wren (1632 – 1723)
- 1.4.12 Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703)
- 1.4.13 William Neile (1637 – 1670)
- 1.4.14 Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727)
- 1.4.15 Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742)
- 1.4.16 Joseph Raphson (1668 – 1712)
- 1.4.17 John Hadley (1682 – 1744)
- 1.4.18 Roger Cotes (1682 – 1716)
- 1.4.19 Brook Taylor (1685 – 1731)
- 1.4.20 John Machin (c. 1686 – 1751)

- 1.5 $\text {1701}$ – $\text {1800}$
- 1.5.1 Thomas Bayes (1702 – 1761)
- 1.5.2 Thomas Simpson (1710 – 1761)
- 1.5.3 William Ludlam (c. 1717 – 1788)
- 1.5.4 Edward Waring (c. 1736 – 1798)
- 1.5.5 John Wilson (1741 – 1793)
- 1.5.6 Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 – 1834)
- 1.5.7 John Farey (1766 – 1826)
- 1.5.8 Peter Barlow (1776 – 1862)
- 1.5.9 Benjamin Gompertz (1779 – 1865)
- 1.5.10 Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871)
- 1.5.11 George Green (1793 – 1841)
- 1.5.12 William Whewell (1794 – 1866)

- 1.6 $\text {1801}$ – $\text {1850}$
- 1.6.1 George Biddell Airy (1801 – 1891)
- 1.6.2 Thomas Penyngton Kirkman (1806 – 1895)
- 1.6.3 William Shanks (1812 – 1882)
- 1.6.4 James Joseph Sylvester (1814 – 1897)
- 1.6.5 Augusta Ada Lovelace (1815 – 1852)
- 1.6.6 Andrew Hollingworth Frost (1819 – 1907)
- 1.6.7 Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910)
- 1.6.8 Isaac Todhunter (1820 – 1884)
- 1.6.9 Arthur Cayley (1821 – 1895)
- 1.6.10 Francis Galton (1822 – 1911)
- 1.6.11 Henry Wilbraham (1825 – 1883)
- 1.6.12 Norman Macleod Ferrers (1829 – 1903)
- 1.6.13 Francis Guthrie (1831 – 1899)
- 1.6.14 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832 – 1898)
- 1.6.15 John Venn (1834 – 1923)
- 1.6.16 William Stanley Jevons (1835 – 1882)
- 1.6.17 Edwin Abbott Abbott (1838 – 1926)
- 1.6.18 William Allen Whitworth (1840 – 1905)
- 1.6.19 Charles Taylor (1840 – 1908)
- 1.6.20 Allan Joseph Champneys Cunningham (1842 – 1928)
- 1.6.21 John William Strutt (1842 – 1919)
- 1.6.22 William Kingdon Clifford (1845 – 1879)
- 1.6.23 Alfred Bray Kempe (1849 – 1922)
- 1.6.24 Horace Lamb (1849 – 1934)
- 1.6.25 Oliver Heaviside (1850 – 1925)
- 1.6.26 Walter William Rouse Ball (1850 – 1925)

- 1.7 $\text {1851}$ – $\text {1900}$
- 1.7.1 Silvanus Phillips Thompson (1851 – 1916)
- 1.7.2 William Burnside (1852 – 1927)
- 1.7.3 James Gow (1854 – 1923)
- 1.7.4 Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854 – 1923)
- 1.7.5 John Edward Aloysius Steggall (1855 – 1935)
- 1.7.6 Karl Pearson (1857 – 1936)
- 1.7.7 Henry Ernest Dudeney (1857 – 1930)
- 1.7.8 Frank Morley (1860 – 1937)
- 1.7.9 Alfred North Whitehead (1861 – 1947)
- 1.7.10 George Ballard Mathews (1861 – 1922)
- 1.7.11 Percy John Heawood (1861 – 1955)
- 1.7.12 Thomas Little Heath (1861 – 1940)
- 1.7.13 Leonard James Rogers (1862 – 1933)
- 1.7.14 Herbert William Richmond (1863 – 1948)
- 1.7.15 William Henry Young (1863 – 1942)
- 1.7.16 Alfred Cardew Dixon (1865 – 1936)
- 1.7.17 George Godfrey Berry (1866 – 1930)
- 1.7.18 Grace Emily Chisholm Young (1868 – 1944)
- 1.7.19 Edmund Taylor Whittaker (1873 – 1956)
- 1.7.20 Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich (1875 – 1929)
- 1.7.21 William Sealy Gosset (1876 – 1937)
- 1.7.22 Godfrey Harold Hardy (1877 – 1947)
- 1.7.23 Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956)
- 1.7.24 James Hopwood Jeans (1877 – 1946)
- 1.7.25 Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain (1879 – 1919)
- 1.7.26 Clement Vavasor Durell (1882 – 1968)
- 1.7.27 Frederick Ernest Relton (1883 – 1963)
- 1.7.28 Henry Thomas Herbert Piaggio (1884 – 1967)
- 1.7.29 John Edensor Littlewood (1885 – 1977)
- 1.7.30 Herbert Westren Turnbull (1885 – 1961)
- 1.7.31 George Neville Watson (1886 – 1965)
- 1.7.32 Charles Galton Darwin (1887 – 1962)
- 1.7.33 Sydney Chapman (1888 – 1970)
- 1.7.34 Aubrey John Kempner (1888 – 1973)
- 1.7.35 Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890 – 1962)
- 1.7.36 Harold Jeffreys (1891 – 1989)
- 1.7.37 Edward Lindsay Ince (1891 – 1941)
- 1.7.38 George Paget Thomson (1892 – 1975)
- 1.7.39 Leigh Mercer (1893 – 1977)
- 1.7.40 Bertram Martin Wilson (1896 – 1935)
- 1.7.41 Charles Fox (1897 – 1977)
- 1.7.42 Douglas Rayner Hartree (1897 – 1958)
- 1.7.43 Edward Charles Titchmarsh (1899 – 1963)
- 1.7.44 John Charles Burkill (1900 – 1983)
- 1.7.45 Albert Edward Ingham (1900 – 1967)

- 1.8 $\text {1901}$ – $\text {1930}$
- 1.8.1 Edward Thomas Copson (1901 – 1980)
- 1.8.2 James Alston Hope Hunter (1902 – 1986)
- 1.8.3 Leonard Henry Caleb Tippett (1902 – 1985)
- 1.8.4 Frank Yates (1902 – 1994)
- 1.8.5 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902 – 1984)
- 1.8.6 Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903 – 1930)
- 1.8.7 Philip Hall (1904 – 1982)
- 1.8.8 Edward Maitland Wright (1906 – 2005)
- 1.8.9 Daniel Edwin Rutherford (1906 – 1966)
- 1.8.10 Raymond Edward Alan Christopher Paley (1907 – 1933)
- 1.8.11 Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter (1907 – 2003)
- 1.8.12 Sarvadaman D.S. Chowla (1907 – 1995)
- 1.8.13 Maurice George Kendall (1907 – 1983)
- 1.8.14 Harold Davenport (1907 – 1969)
- 1.8.15 Florence Nightingale David (1909 – 1993)
- 1.8.16 Charles Alfred Coulson (1910 – 1974)
- 1.8.17 Walter Warwick Sawyer (1911 – 2008)
- 1.8.18 Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954)
- 1.8.19 David Gawen Champernowne (1912 – 2000)
- 1.8.20 Henry Martyn Cundy (1913 – 2005)
- 1.8.21 Harold Neville Vazeille Temperley (1915 – 2017)
- 1.8.22 Anthony Henry Basson (1916 – 2004)
- 1.8.23 Richard Kenneth Guy (1916 – 2020)
- 1.8.24 Irving John Good (1916 – 2009)
- 1.8.25 Graham Higman (1917 – 2008)
- 1.8.26 William Thomas Tutte (1917 – 2002)
- 1.8.27 Geoffrey Thomas Kneebone (1918 – 2003)
- 1.8.28 Francis John Anscombe (1918 – 2001)
- 1.8.29 Thomas James Willmore (1919 – 2005)
- 1.8.30 John Maynard Smith (1920 – 2004)
- 1.8.31 Claude Ambrose Rogers (1920 – 2005)
- 1.8.32 Anthony Philip French (1920 – 2017)
- 1.8.33 George Spencer-Brown (1923 – 2016)
- 1.8.34 Peter John Hilton (1923 – 2010)
- 1.8.35 John R. Myhill (1923 – 1987)
- 1.8.36 Michael James Lighthill (1924 – 1998)
- 1.8.37 David Roxbee Cox (b. 1924 )
- 1.8.38 John Cedric Shepherdson (1926 – 2015)
- 1.8.39 John Leech (1926 – 1992)
- 1.8.40 Edward McWilliam Patterson (1926 – 2013)
- 1.8.41 Walter Laws Smith (b. 1926 )
- 1.8.42 Geoffrey Stephenson (b. 1927 )
- 1.8.43 Dominic William Jordan (c. 1928 – 2012)
- 1.8.44 Evelyn Martin Lansdowne Beale (1928 – 1985)
- 1.8.45 Ian Grant Macdonald (b. 1928 )
- 1.8.46 Frank Tapson (b. 1929 )
- 1.8.47 Michael Francis Atiyah (1929 – 2019)
- 1.8.48 Anthony James Merrill Spencer (1929 – 2008)
- 1.8.49 Edward John Lemmon (1930 – 1966)

- 1.9 $1931$ and on
- 1.9.1 Roger Penrose (b. 1931 )
- 1.9.2 Philip Gerald Drazin (1934 – 2002)
- 1.9.3 Malcolm E. Lines (b. 1936 )
- 1.9.4 Charles Terence Clegg Wall (b. 1936 )
- 1.9.5 David Herbert Fowler (1937 – 2004)
- 1.9.6 John Horton Conway (b. 1937 )
- 1.9.7 R. David Nelson (b. 1938 )
- 1.9.8 Dominic James Anthony Welsh (b. 1938 )
- 1.9.9 Brian Hartley (1939 – 1994)
- 1.9.10 Alan Baker (b. 1939 )
- 1.9.11 John Frank Charles Kingman (b. 1939 )
- 1.9.12 David Wells (b. 1940 )
- 1.9.13 Kenneth George Binmore (b. 1940 )
- 1.9.14 Peter Michael Neumann (b. 1940 )
- 1.9.15 John Michael Pollard (b. 1941 )
- 1.9.16 David Orme Tall (b. 1941 )
- 1.9.17 Wilfrid Augustine Hodges (b. 1941 )
- 1.9.18 Stephen William Hawking (1942 – 2018)
- 1.9.19 Alan G. Hamilton (b. 1943 )
- 1.9.20 Robin James Wilson (b. 1943 )
- 1.9.21 Martin Neil Huxley (b. 1944 )
- 1.9.22 Nigel J. Cutland (b. 1944 )
- 1.9.23 Robert Charles Vaughan (b. 1945 )
- 1.9.24 Timothy Poston (b. 1945 )
- 1.9.25 John J. O'Connor (b. 1945 )
- 1.9.26 Ian Nicholas Stewart (b. 1945 )
- 1.9.27 Ian Fraser Kilmister (1945 – 2015)
- 1.9.28 David John Acheson (b. 1946 )
- 1.9.29 Adrian Frederick Melhuish Smith (b. 1946 )
- 1.9.30 Keith J. Devlin (b. 1947 )
- 1.9.31 Ian Chiswell (b. 1948 )
- 1.9.32 Jeremy Stangroom (b. 1950 )
- 1.9.33 Geoffrey Richard Grimmett (b. 1950 )
- 1.9.34 Galen John Strawson (b. 1952 )
- 1.9.35 Andrew John Wiles (b. 1953 )
- 1.9.36 Robert Arnott Wilson (b. 1958 )
- 1.9.37 Kate Bush (b. 1958 )
- 1.9.38 Stephen Wolfram (b. 1959 )
- 1.9.39 Matt Westwood (b. 1960 )
- 1.9.40 Richard Lawrence Taylor (b. 1962 )
- 1.9.41 Andrew James Granville (b. 1962 )
- 1.9.42 William Timothy Gowers (b. 1963 )
- 1.9.43 Trevor Dion Wooley (b. 1964 )
- 1.9.44 Marcus Peter Francis du Sautoy (b. 1965 )
- 1.9.45 Ruth Elke Lawrence-Neimark (b. 1971 )

- 2 Wales
- 3 Scotland
- 3.1 John Napier (1550 – 1617)
- 3.2 James Gregory (1638 – 1675)
- 3.3 David Gregory (1659 – 1708)
- 3.4 Robert Simson (1687 – 1768)
- 3.5 James Stirling (1692 – 1770)
- 3.6 Colin Maclaurin (1698 – 1746)
- 3.7 Matthew Stewart (1717 – 1785)
- 3.8 James Watt (I) (1736 – 1819)
- 3.9 John Playfair (1748 – 1819)
- 3.10 William Wallace (1768 – 1843)
- 3.11 James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879)
- 3.12 William Carmichael McIntosh (1838 – 1931)
- 3.13 Andrew Gray (1847 – 1925)
- 3.14 William Roger Paton (1857 – 1921)
- 3.15 Andrew Russell Forsyth (1858 – 1942)
- 3.16 John Dougall (1867 – 1960)
- 3.17 Horatio Scott Carslaw (1870 – 1954)
- 3.18 Robert John Tainsh Bell (1876 – 1963)
- 3.19 James Colquhoun Irvine (1877 – 1952)
- 3.20 Duncan MacLaren Young Sommerville (1879 – 1934)
- 3.21 Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn (1882 – 1948)
- 3.22 Eric Temple Bell (1883 – 1960)
- 3.23 Thomas Murray MacRobert (1884 – 1962)
- 3.24 Hyman Levy (1889 – 1975)
- 3.25 William Marshall Smart (1889 – 1975)
- 3.26 Robert Pollock Gillespie (1903 – 1977)
- 3.27 James Morton Hyslop (1908 – 1984)
- 3.28 Alexander Kirkland Cairncross (1911 – 1998)
- 3.29 Daniel Martin (1915 – 2007)
- 3.30 Ian Naismith Sneddon (1919 – 2000)
- 3.31 Donald Cecil Pack (1920 – 2016)
- 3.32 Ben Noble (1922 – 2006)
- 3.33 John Hunter (1922 – 2013)
- 3.34 James Alexander Green (1926 – 2014)
- 3.35 Iain Thomas Arthur Carpenter Adamson (1928 – 2010)
- 3.36 John Mackintosh Howie (1936 – 2011)
- 3.37 James David McCawley (1938 – 1999)
- 3.38 Thomas Scott Blyth (b. 1938 )
- 3.39 Derek John Scott Robinson (b. 1938 )
- 3.40 Edmund Frederick Robertson (b. 1943 )
- 3.41 Jonathan Michael Borwein (1951 – 2016)
- 3.42 Peter Benjamin Borwein (b. 1953 )

- 4 Northern Ireland
- 5 Other
- 6 Unknown (to be researched)

## England

### $\text {0}$ – $\text {1000}$

##### Bede (c. 673 – 735)

English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles.

Studied the academic discipline of computus, that is the science of calculating calendar dates.

Worked on computing the date of Easter.

Helped establish the "Anno Domini" practice of numbering years.

Produced works on finger-counting, the sphere, and division.

These works are probably the first works on mathematics written in England by an Englishman.
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### $\text {1101}$ – $\text {1500}$

##### Robert of Chester (12th century )

English Arabist of the $12$th century who translated several books from Arabic to Latin.

Hence appears to be the first to introduce the Arabic numerals to Europe.

His most immediate legacy was his use of the word sine (as **sinus**, meaning **bay** or **fold**) for the word that in the original Indian meant **bow** or chord.

Some credit Gerard of Cremona for this, but Gerard now appears to have followed Robert.
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##### John of Holywood (c. 1195 – 1256)

English mathematician and monk, also (perhaps better) known as **Johannes de Sacrobosco** (his name translated into Italian), best known for his works concerning astronomy and the calendar.

Proposed an amendment to the Julian calendar (at the time ten days adrift). His suggestions were influential on Christopher Clavius's own work to develop the Gregorian calendar.
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##### William of Ockham (c. 1288 – 1347 or 1348)

English philosopher-monk whose main contribution towards philosophical thought was what is now known as Occam's Razor.

Also wrote down (in words) what are now known as De Morgan's laws.
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### $\text {1501}$ – $\text {1600}$

##### Thomas Harriot (c. 1560 – 1621)

English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer and translator.

His name is variously reported as **Harriott**, **Hariot**, or **Heriot**.

Was at one point credited with the invention of $>$ and $<$ for greater than and less than, but it appears that they were in fact invented by somebody else.
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##### John Blagrave (c. 1561 – 1611)

English mathematician whose main work was in the field of horology.

Designed and made instruments, including sundials and astrolabes.
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##### Edward Wright (1561 – 1615)

English mathematician noted for his contributions to the science of cartography.
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##### Henry Briggs (1561 – 1630)

English mathematician most famous for converting Napierian logarithms into Briggsian (common) logarithms.
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##### William Oughtred (1574 – 1660)

English mathematician credited with the invention of the slide rule.

Also credited with inventing a circular version although precedence for this was disputed with his student Richard Delamain.

Experimented with notations in his famously compact writings, inventing some new symbology which stuck, notably $\times$, $\sin$ and $\cos$.

Among others, he may have been influential in the introduction of the symbol $\pi$ for pi, using an abbreviation for the Greek word for **periphery** (that is, **περιφέρεια**).
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##### Edmund Gunter (1581 – 1626)

British clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer.

Best remembered for his contributions toward land surveying: Gunter's chain, the Gunter's quadrant and the Gunter's scale.

Credited with the first ever publication, in $1620$, of logarithms of trigonometric functions.

Invented the terms cosine and cotangent.
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##### Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)

English thinker better known for being an astute political philosopher than as a mathematician.

Best known in mathematical circles for believing that he had solved the problem of Squaring the Circle.

Generally considered a mathematical ignoramus, his influence was perhaps of greater importance than generally considered, if only because of the stimulating controversy and discussion he raised.
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##### Richard Delamain (1600 – 1644)

English mathematician credited with the invention of a circular slide rule although precedence for this was disputed with his tutor William Oughtred.

At one time was mathematics tutor to Charles I of England.
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##### John Speidell (fl. 1600 – 1634)

English mathematician known for his early work on the calculation of logarithms.
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### $\text {1601}$ – $\text {1700}$

##### John Greaves (1602 – 1652)

English mathematician, astronomer and antiquarian.

Collected astrolabes and astronomical measuring devices (now in the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford).

Studied weights and measures, and wrote a treatise on the Roman foot and denarius, and was a keen numismatist.

In $1645$ he attempted a reform of the Julian calendar which was not adopted.
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##### John Pell (1611 – 1685)

English mathematician and foreign diplomat most famous for what is now known as Pell's Equation.
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##### John Wilkins (1614 – 72)

English Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author.

One of the founders of the Royal Society.

Demonstrated the use of mathematics in the design of machines.
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##### John Wallis (1616 – 1703)

English mathematician who made considerable contributions towards the invention of the calculus.

Credited with introducing the symbol $\infty$ for infinity.

One of the first English mathematicians to use the techniques of analytic geometry as defined by Descartes.
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##### William Brouncker (1620 – 1684)

English mathematician best known for Brouncker's Formula, an expansion for pi in the form of a generalized continued fraction.

Popularly believed to have been the first European to provide the solution to what is known as Pell's Equation, but the supposition that its name was a misattribution by Euler is disputed.

Improved on William Neile's computation of the arc length of the semicubical parabola $a y^2 = x^3$.
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##### John Graunt (1620 – 1674)

English merchant whose influence on mathematics consists of the first statistical analysis of life expectancy, population estimation and the ratio between the sexes.
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##### John Collins (1625 – 1683)

English mathematician whose principal influence consisted of a copious correspondence with the other leading minds of his day.

Mainly worked as a teacher and an accountant, and authored some books.
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##### Joseph Moxon (1627 – 1691)

English printer specialising in mathematical books and maps, a maker of globes and mathematical instruments, and mathematical lexicographer.

Produced the first English language dictionary devoted to mathematics, and the first detailed instructional manual for printers.
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##### Isaac Barrow (1630 – 1677)

English Christian theologian and mathematician who had a hand in the development of calculus.

Often cited as being the discoverer of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

Concentrated on the properties of the tangent.

The first to calculate the tangents of the kappa curve.

Famously stood down from his position as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in favour of Isaac Newton.
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##### Edward Cocker (1631 – 1676)

English engraver, who also taught writing and arithmetic.

Supposedly the author of the famous and highly popular *Arithmetick*, although it is disputed as to whether he actually was the author.
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##### Christopher Michael Wren (1632 – 1723)

English mathematician, anatomist, astronomer, geometer and physicist, as well as being Britain's most famous architect.

One of the founders of the Royal Society, and was its president from $1680$ to $1682$.
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##### Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703)

English scientist who worked in many fields and investigated a great deal of stuff.

In the field of applied mathematics he is best known for Hooke's Law.

Made the essental suggestion to Isaac Newton that planetary orbits have two components: towards the central body, and tangential to the orbit.

Invented the conical pendulum.
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##### William Neile (1637 – 1670)

English mathematician whose most important work was on the rectification of the semicubical parabola, which was an important stage in the development of calculus.
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##### Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727)

Hugely influential English all-rounder famous for:

- Inventing calculus, independently of Leibniz
- Successfully providing a mathematical model for the force of gravity
- Formulating the Principle of Conservation of Momentum and Principle of Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Building the first practical optical reflecting telescope
- Developing a theory of colour based on the splitting of light with a prism

and much more.
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##### Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742)

English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist best known for computing the orbit of Halley's Comet.

He was the second Astronomer Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed.
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##### Joseph Raphson (1668 – 1712)

English mathematician best known for the Newton-Raphson method for approximating the zeroes of a function.
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##### John Hadley (1682 – 1744)

English mathematician who invented the sextant, independently of Thomas Godfrey.

Constructed the first practical working reflecting telescope.
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##### Roger Cotes (1682 – 1716)

English mathematician, who worked closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of *Principia* before publication.

Invented the quadrature formulas known as Newton-Cotes Formulas.

First introduced what is known today as Euler's Formula, in the form $\map \ln {\cos \theta + i \sin \theta} = i \theta$.

Introduced the concept of the radian.
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##### Brook Taylor (1685 – 1731)

English mathematician noted for Taylor's Theorem, but he was not the only one to have been exploring it.

Also made progress in the mathematics of perspective and the foundations of projective geometry.
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##### John Machin (c. 1686 – 1751)

English professor of astronomy, best known for developing a quickly converging series for $\pi$ (pi) in $1706$ and using it to compute $\pi$ to $100$ decimal places.
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### $\text {1701}$ – $\text {1800}$

##### Thomas Bayes (1702 – 1761)

The **Rev. Thomas Bayes** was a mathematician and Presbyterian minister.

Most famous for his formulation of what is now known as Bayes' Theorem.
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##### Thomas Simpson (1710 – 1761)

British mathematician and inventor.

Eponym of Simpson's Rule to approximate definite integrals.
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##### William Ludlam (c. 1717 – 1788)

English mathematician and writer on theology who was a fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge.

Credited with first formulating what is now known as Playfair's Axiom.
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##### Edward Waring (c. 1736 – 1798)

English mathematician mainly active in the fields of number theory and analysis.

Most famous for posing what are now called:

- Waring's Problem
- Waring's Prime Number Conjecture, otherwise known as the Goldbach Conjecture.

##### John Wilson (1741 – 1793)

English mathematician remembered mainly for Wilson's Theorem, which was in fact published by Edward Waring and came originally from Ibn al-Haytham ("Alhazen").

It was in fact proved by Lagrange in $1793$.
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##### Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 – 1834)

English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
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##### John Farey (1766 – 1826)

English geologist, known for defining the Farey Sequence.
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##### Peter Barlow (1776 – 1862)

English mathematician and physicist, famous for his *New Mathematical Tables*, which would be later republished and known as *Barlow's Tables* and become a standard reference work.

Also (disappointingly) notable for his prediction in $1811$ that no prime greater than $2^{31} - 1$ would ever be discovered.

Also noted for his work on magnetism and strength of materials.
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##### Benjamin Gompertz (1779 – 1865)

British self-educated mathematician and actuary, best known for his Gompertz Law of Mortality, a demographic model published in $1825$.
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##### Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871)

English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer.

Originated, together with Ada Lovelace, the concept of a programmable computer.
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##### George Green (1793 – 1841)

Famously (and mystifyingly) self-taught English mathematical physicist best known for Green's Theorem.

Did pioneering work on electromagnetism.
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##### William Whewell (1794 – 1866)

English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

Originator of many new scientific terms, including **ion**, **cathode**, **Eocene**, **Miocene**, **physicist**, and **scientist**.
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### $\text {1801}$ – $\text {1850}$

##### George Biddell Airy (1801 – 1891)

English mathematician and astronomer

Work on planetary orbits.

Measured the mean density of the Earth.

Devised a method of solution of two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics.

Established Greenwich as the location of the prime meridian.
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##### Thomas Penyngton Kirkman (1806 – 1895)

British mathematician and ordained minister of the Church of England, renowned for obtaining an existence theorem for Steiner triple systems that founded the field of combinatorial design theory.

Thus he pre-empted Jakob Steiner in this by over $6$ years.

The Kirkman's Schoolgirl Problem is named after him.
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##### William Shanks (1812 – 1882)

English amateur mathematician famous for using Machin's Formula for Pi to calculate $\pi$ (pi) to $707$ places in $1873$, a result which was correct only up to the $527$th place.

The error was highlighted in $1945$ (or $1946$) by D.F. Ferguson, using a mechanical calculator.

Shanks' approximation was the longest expansion of $\pi$ until the advent of the electronic digital computer about one century later.

Shanks also calculated Euler's number $e$ and the Euler-Mascheroni constant $\gamma$ to many decimal places.

Also published a table of primes up to $60 \, 000$ and found the natural logarithms of $2$, $3$, $5$ and $10$ to $137$ places.

Also calculated the exact powers of $2$ up to $2^{721}$.
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##### James Joseph Sylvester (1814 – 1897)

English mathematician who contributed to matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, partition theory and combinatorics.

First coined the word matrix.

Contributed notably to the growth of mathematics in the USA.

Tutor of Florence Nightingale.
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##### Augusta Ada Lovelace (1815 – 1852)

English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine.

Creator of the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine.

Hence she is often regarded as the first computer programmer.
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##### Andrew Hollingworth Frost (1819 – 1907)

English mathematician best known for his discovery of an order $7$ perfect magic cube, accomplished in $1866$.
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##### Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910)

One of the most famous people in British history, she reformed the system of care in military field hospitals.

However, she was also a gifted mathematician, and contributed significantly to the field of statistics.
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##### Isaac Todhunter (1820 – 1884)

English mathematician best known nowadays for his books on mathematics and its history.
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##### Arthur Cayley (1821 – 1895)

English mathematician most famous for his work in group theory and graph theory.

The first to study groups as an abstract concept in their own right.

Also one of the pioneers of matrix algebra, and hence sometimes cited as one of the "fathers" of matrix theory.
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##### Francis Galton (1822 – 1911)

English statistician, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
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##### Henry Wilbraham (1825 – 1883)

English mathematician best known for discovering and explaining the Gibbs phenomenon nearly fifty years before Josiah Willard Gibbs did.
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##### Norman Macleod Ferrers (1829 – 1903)

English mathematician and university administrator, best known nowadays for Ferrers diagrams.
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##### Francis Guthrie (1831 – 1899)

English-born, later South African, mathematician and botanist, who is best known in the field of mathematics for posing the Four Color Theorem in $1852$.
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##### Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832 – 1898)

English mathematician and logician, Anglican priest and author of children's books.

He is best known nowadays for his *Alice's Adventures in Wonderland* and *Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There*, not (on the surface) works of mathematics.

His actual mathematical works tended to be idiosyncratic, often focused on making mathematical concepts (in particular, logical syllogisms) accessible to children.

One of the first to treat logical elements with symbols, thus contributing to the birth of symbolic logic.
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##### John Venn (1834 – 1923)

British mathematician, also an ordained priest, who was active particularly in the fields of probability, statistics, set theory and logic.

Best known for his invention of the Venn diagram.

Later in his career he turned his attention to history.
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##### William Stanley Jevons (1835 – 1882)

English economist and logician.

Pioneered the mathematical approach to the study of economics.

Refined and developed George Boole's algebra of classes.
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##### Edwin Abbott Abbott (1838 – 1926)

English mathematician and philosopher whose claim to mathematical immortality lies in his speculative fictional work *Flatland: a Romance of Many Dimensions*.
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##### William Allen Whitworth (1840 – 1905)

English mathematician who founded the journal *Messenger of Mathematics* with Charles Taylor.
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##### Charles Taylor (1840 – 1908)

English Hebraist who also wrote several works on geometry.

Founded the journal *Messenger of Mathematics* with William Allen Whitworth.
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##### Allan Joseph Champneys Cunningham (1842 – 1928)

English military man who studied number theory after leaving the army.

Used his expertise to find factors in numbers such as Mersenne numbers and Fermat numbers.
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##### John William Strutt (1842 – 1919)

English physicist who won the $1904$ Nobel Prize in Physics with William Ramsay for the discovery of argon.

Discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh Scattering, which explains why the sky is blue.

Predicted the existence of Rayleigh waves.
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##### William Kingdon Clifford (1845 – 1879)

English mathematician and philosopher best known for his work on what is now known as Clifford algebra.

Did much of the intellectual groundwork for the General Theory of Relativity.

Died prematurely as a result of tuberculosis probably brought on through overwork.
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##### Alfred Bray Kempe (1849 – 1922)

English mathematician best known for his work on linkages and the Four Color Theorem.
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##### Horace Lamb (1849 – 1934)

English applied mathematician and author of several influential texts on classical physics

Coned the word **vorticity** in $1916$.
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##### Oliver Heaviside (1850 – 1925)

Largely self-taught English mathematician and physicist who was one of the pioneers in the field of electrical engineering.

Invented a considerable amount of the mathematics and terminology used in electromagnetism.

Significantly developed the theory of Operational Calculus, which are still used in modern-day mathematics in the context of Laplace transforms.
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##### Walter William Rouse Ball (1850 – 1925)

English mathematician, lawyer, and amateur magician.

Best known for his accounts of the history of mathematics.
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### $\text {1851}$ – $\text {1900}$

##### Silvanus Phillips Thompson (1851 – 1916)

English professor of physics, known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author.

Author of the $1910$ text *Calculus Made Easy*, which teaches the fundamentals of infinitesimal calculus, and is still in print.
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##### William Burnside (1852 – 1927)

English mathematician who was one of the earliest researchers in group theory.
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##### James Gow (1854 – 1923)

English scholar, educator, historian, and author, widely recognized for *A Short History of Greek Mathematics*.
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##### Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854 – 1923)

British engineer, mathematician, physicist, and inventor.

Awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.
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##### John Edward Aloysius Steggall (1855 – 1935)

British mathematician and educator whose research interests were in the theory of numbers and in kinematical geometry.
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##### Karl Pearson (1857 – 1936)

Influential English mathematician and biometrician.

Credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics.

Contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics.
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##### Henry Ernest Dudeney (1857 – 1930)

English author and mathematician who specialised in logic puzzles and mathematical games.

Considered one of Britain's foremost creators of mathematical puzzles.
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##### Frank Morley (1860 – 1937)

English, later American, mathematician, known mostly for his teaching and research in the fields of algebra and geometry.
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##### Alfred North Whitehead (1861 – 1947)

English mathematician who also studied philosophy.

Best known for his co-authorship with Bertrand Arthur William Russell of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.
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##### George Ballard Mathews (1861 – 1922)

English mathematician who taught alongside Andrew Gray, with whom he coauthored a textbook on Bessel functions.

Also noted for his textbooks on number theory and projective geometry.
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##### Percy John Heawood (1861 – 1955)

English mathematician who devoted his working life to the Four Color Theorem.

In $1890$, exposed a flaw in Alfred Bray Kempe's proof, that had been considered as valid for $11$ years.

He never actually proved the theorem, which remained open until it was finally proved in $1976$ by Kenneth Ira Appel and Wolfgang Haken.
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##### Thomas Little Heath (1861 – 1940)

English Civil servant who is best known for his scholarly translations of the Greek classics of mathematics into English.
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##### Leonard James Rogers (1862 – 1933)

English mathematician famous for the Rogers-Ramanujan Identities and for proving a special case of Hölder's inequality.
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##### Herbert William Richmond (1863 – 1948)

English mathematician who did considerable work in the field of algebraic geometry.

Most famous now for his construction of the regular $17$-gon.

Worked on ballistics during World War I, the results of which influenced continuing work on the subject in World War II.
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##### William Henry Young (1863 – 1942)

English mathematician, who worked on measure theory, Fourier series, differential calculus amongst other fields.

Made brilliant and long-lasting contributions to the study of functions of several complex variables.
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##### Alfred Cardew Dixon (1865 – 1936)

English mathematician well known for his work in differential equations.

Did early work on Fredholm integrals independently of Fredholm.

Worked both on ordinary differential equations and on partial differential equations studying Abelian integrals, automorphic functions, and functional equations.
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##### George Godfrey Berry (1866 – 1930)

Presumably English scholar, about whom little is known, who gave his name to the Berry Paradox.

His understanding of logic and the concepts underpinning mathematical logic was a strong influence on Bertrand Russell.
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##### Grace Emily Chisholm Young (1868 – 1944)

English mathematician who became the first woman to receive a doctorate in Germany, in any field.
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##### Edmund Taylor Whittaker (1873 – 1956)

English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics and the theory of special functions.

Principally interested in numerical analysis.

Worked on celestial mechanics and the history of physics.
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##### Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich (1875 – 1929)

English all-rounder mathematician who committed suicide from mental illness supposedly brought on by overwork.
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##### William Sealy Gosset (1876 – 1937)

English statistician, who published under the pseudonym **Student**, most famous for Student's $t$-distribution.

Being an employee of Guinness, who had concerns about trade secrets being disclosed within academic papers, Gosset was unable to publish under his real name. Gosset was later allowed to publish under the pen name Student.

Had a close friendship with Karl Pearson and Ronald Aylmer Fisher.
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##### Godfrey Harold Hardy (1877 – 1947)

English mathematician noted for his work in number theory and analysis.

Also famous for his discovery and mentorship of Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan.

Non-mathematicians remember him mainly for his book *A Mathematician's Apology*.
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##### Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956)

English radiochemist who, along with Ernest Rutherford, formulated the theory that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.

Also proved the existence of isotopes of certain radioactive elements.

Best known in the mathematical world for Soddy Circles and Soddy's Hexlet.
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##### James Hopwood Jeans (1877 – 1946)

**Sir James Hopwood Jeans** was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.
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##### Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain (1879 – 1919)

British logician whose work was in the fields of mathematical logic and the foundations of set theory.

He also applied his results in logic to the field of physics.
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##### Clement Vavasor Durell (1882 – 1968)

English schoolmaster who wrote mathematical textbooks.
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##### Frederick Ernest Relton (1883 – 1963)

English mathematician known for his books on Bessel functions and applied differential equations.
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##### Henry Thomas Herbert Piaggio (1884 – 1967)

English mathematician best known for his text book *An Elementary Treatise on Differential Equations and their Applications*.
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##### John Edensor Littlewood (1885 – 1977)

British mathematician best known for his collaborations with Godfrey Harold Hardy.
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##### Herbert Westren Turnbull (1885 – 1961)

English mathematician best known now for his writings on the history of mathematics.

Did considerably work on the theory of invariants.
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##### George Neville Watson (1886 – 1965)

English mathematician who applied complex analysis to the theory of special functions.
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##### Charles Galton Darwin (1887 – 1962)

English physicist.

Served as director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the Second World War
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##### Sydney Chapman (1888 – 1970)

English mathematician whose most noted mathematical accomplishments were in the field of stochastic processes.

Worked out the photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer.
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##### Aubrey John Kempner (1888 – 1973)

English-born American mathematician, known for the Kempner function and the Kempner series.
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##### Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890 – 1962)

English statistician, evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and eugenicist.
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##### Harold Jeffreys (1891 – 1989)

English mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer.
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##### Edward Lindsay Ince (1891 – 1941)

English mathematician who worked mainly in the field of differential equations.
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##### George Paget Thomson (1892 – 1975)

English physicist known for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.
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##### Leigh Mercer (1893 – 1977)

British recreational mathematician and wordplay expert best known for coining the palindrome: *A man, a plan, a canal -- Panama!*

Also the inventor of several limericks.
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##### Bertram Martin Wilson (1896 – 1935)

English mathematician, remembered primarily as a co-editor, along with G.H. Hardy and P.V. Seshu Aiyar, of the *Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan*.
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##### Charles Fox (1897 – 1977)

English mathematician who introduced the Fox $H$-Function.
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##### Douglas Rayner Hartree (1897 – 1958)

English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to the Hartree-Fock equations of atomic physics.

Constructed a differential analyser using Meccano.
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##### Edward Charles Titchmarsh (1899 – 1963)

British mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory, Fourier analysis and other parts of mathematical analysis.
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##### John Charles Burkill (1900 – 1983)

British mathematician whose main work was in analysis.

Also renowned for the quality of his teaching books.
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##### Albert Edward Ingham (1900 – 1967)

British mathematician best known for his work in analytic number theory.
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### $\text {1901}$ – $\text {1930}$

##### Edward Thomas Copson (1901 – 1980)

British mathematician best known for his textbooks in various fields.
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##### James Alston Hope Hunter (1902 – 1986)

British mathematician best known for his contributions to recreational mathematics.
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##### Leonard Henry Caleb Tippett (1902 – 1985)

English statistician who pioneered extreme value theory.
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##### Frank Yates (1902 – 1994)

English pioneer of $20$th century statistics.
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##### Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902 – 1984)

English theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.
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##### Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903 – 1930)

British mathematican most famous for founding the field of what is now called Ramsey Theory.
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##### Philip Hall (1904 – 1982)

English mathematician active in the field of group theory.
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##### Edward Maitland Wright (1906 – 2005)

English mathematician best known for co-authoring the 1938 work *An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers*, with G.H. Hardy.
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##### Daniel Edwin Rutherford (1906 – 1966)

British mathematician, known as **Dan Rutherford**, who mainly worked on abstract algebra, vector analysis and fluid mechanics, among various others.
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##### Raymond Edward Alan Christopher Paley (1907 – 1933)

English mathematician who worked mainly on of real-variable techniques in complex analysis.
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##### Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter (1907 – 2003)

British-born Canadian mathematician who is best known for his work in geometry.
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##### Sarvadaman D.S. Chowla (1907 – 1995)

British-born Indian American mathematician who worked mainly in number theory.
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##### Maurice George Kendall (1907 – 1983)

English mathematician who made significant contributions to statistics.
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##### Harold Davenport (1907 – 1969)

English mathematician who worked mainly in number theory.
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##### Florence Nightingale David (1909 – 1993)

English mathematician noted for her work in statistics.
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##### Charles Alfred Coulson (1910 – 1974)

British mathematician whose main area of research was in applications to molecular physical chemistry.

Published widely in the field of applied mathematics.
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##### Walter Warwick Sawyer (1911 – 2008)

English mathematician best known for the books he wrote, especially *Mathematician's Delight* and *Prelude to Mathematics*.
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##### Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954)

English mathematician who is often considered to be the "father of modern computer science".

Famous for his role in cracking the Enigma cipher in World War II, his conception of the Turing machine and the idea of the Turing test.
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##### David Gawen Champernowne (1912 – 2000)

English economist and mathematician, famous for proving that the number now known as the Champernowne constant is normal with respect to base $10$.
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##### Henry Martyn Cundy (1913 – 2005)

English mathematician best known for his reform of the teaching profession in Britain.
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##### Harold Neville Vazeille Temperley (1915 – 2017)

English applied mathematician who made numerous contributions to the fields of statistical mechanics, graph theory and the physics of liquids and gases
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##### Anthony Henry Basson (1916 – 2004)

English mathematician specialising in symbolic logic.
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##### Richard Kenneth Guy (1916 – 2020)

English mathematician most famous for his work in the fields of game theory, number theory and graph theory.
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##### Irving John Good (1916 – 2009)

British mathematician of Polish ancestry who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing.

Subsequently focused on the design of computers and Bayesian statistics.
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##### Graham Higman (1917 – 2008)

English mathematician active in the field of group theory.
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##### William Thomas Tutte (1917 – 2002)

English codebreaker and mathematician working on the foundations of graph theory and matroid theory.

Made a fundamental breakthrough in cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher, which contributed significantly to the defeat of Germany in the Second World War.
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##### Geoffrey Thomas Kneebone (1918 – 2003)

British mathematician who worked in geometry, set theory and mathematical logic.

Best known for his collaborative writings with John Greenlees Semple.
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##### Francis John Anscombe (1918 – 2001)

English statistician best known for emphasising the importance of randomisation.
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##### Thomas James Willmore (1919 – 2005)

British mathematician best known for his work on differential geometry.
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##### John Maynard Smith (1920 – 2004)

English theoretical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.

Originally an aeronautical engineer during the Second World War.

Instrumental in the application of game theory to evolution.
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##### Claude Ambrose Rogers (1920 – 2005)

English mathematician who worked in analysis and geometry.
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##### Anthony Philip French (1920 – 2017)

English professor of physics whose main interest was undergraduate physics education.
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##### George Spencer-Brown (1923 – 2016)

British mathematician, philosopher and crackpot best known for his book *Laws of Form*.

Made claims to the proofs of some famous hypotheses, but these were never validated.
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##### Peter John Hilton (1923 – 2010)

English mathematician best known for his work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park during the Second World War, where he helped break the Lorenz cipher.

His academic interests lay in homotopy theory.
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##### John R. Myhill (1923 – 1987)

British mathematician working mainly in the field formal languages and mathematical logic.
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##### Michael James Lighthill (1924 – 1998)

British applied mathematician, known for his pioneering work in the field of aeroacoustics.
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##### David Roxbee Cox (b. 1924 )

British mathematician working mainly in the field of statistics.
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##### John Cedric Shepherdson (1926 – 2015)

Professor emeritus at the University of Bristol, England.

Co-designer (with Howard E. Sturgis) of the Unlimited Register Machine, a refinement of the Turing machine.
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##### John Leech (1926 – 1992)

English mathematician working in number theory, geometry and combinatorial group theory.

Discovered the $3$rd Hardy-Ramanujan number $\map {\operatorname{Ta} } 3$ in $1957$.

Best known for his discovery of the Leech lattice in $1965$.
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##### Edward McWilliam Patterson (1926 – 2013)

English mathematician whose research included the study of recurrent tensor fields, ring theory and Lie algebras.
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##### Walter Laws Smith (b. 1926 )

British-born American mathematician known for his contributions to applied probability theory.
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##### Geoffrey Stephenson (b. 1927 )

English mathematician specialising in applied mathematics.
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##### Dominic William Jordan (c. 1928 – 2012)

English self-taught mathematician who wrote textbooks after retiring from a career teaching mathematics in University.
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##### Evelyn Martin Lansdowne Beale (1928 – 1985)

English applied mathematician and statistician who was one of the pioneers of mathematical programming.
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##### Ian Grant Macdonald (b. 1928 )

English mathematician known for his contributions to symmetric functions, special functions, Lie algebra theory and other aspects of algebraic combinatorics.
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##### Frank Tapson (b. 1929 )

English mathematician, teacher and game enthusiast who published much material useful for teaching.

Also the creator of several online educational resources.
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##### Michael Francis Atiyah (1929 – 2019)

English mathematician specialising in geometry.
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##### Anthony James Merrill Spencer (1929 – 2008)

English mathematician working mainly in the field of material mechanics.
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##### Edward John Lemmon (1930 – 1966)

English mathematician best known as a writer on logic, particularly modal logic.
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### $1931$ and on

##### Roger Penrose (b. 1931 )

British physicist and mathematician renowned for his work in cosmology.

The creator of the Penrose tiles.
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##### Philip Gerald Drazin (1934 – 2002)

British mathematician who was a leading international expert in fluid dynamics.
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##### Malcolm E. Lines (b. 1936 )

British mathematician and metallurgist known for his popular books on mathematics.
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##### Charles Terence Clegg Wall (b. 1936 )

British mathematician, working in cobordism theory in algebraic topology, then mainly in the area of manifolds, particularly geometric topology and related abstract algebra included in surgery theory.
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##### David Herbert Fowler (1937 – 2004)

British historian of mathematics whose thesis concerned the study of ratios as used in ancient Greece before the work of Eudoxus of Cnidus.
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##### John Horton Conway (b. 1937 )

British-born mathematician noted for his work in group theory and recreational mathematics.

Inventor of The Game of Life.
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##### R. David Nelson (b. 1938 )

English mathematician best known for his work editing the *The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*.
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##### Dominic James Anthony Welsh (b. 1938 )

English mathematician specialising in matroid theory, cryptography and percolation theory.
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##### Brian Hartley (1939 – 1994)

British mathematician mainly noted for his work in group theory.

Best remembered by undergraduates for his much-cited textbook *Rings, Modules and Linear Algebra* (1970) which he cowrote with Trevor Hawkes.

A student of Philip Hall, and a tutor of Ian Stewart.
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##### Alan Baker (b. 1939 )

British mathematician whose main area of work has been in finding effective methods for number theory.
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##### John Frank Charles Kingman (b. 1939 )

English mathematician bests known for developing the mathematics of the coalescent theory.
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##### David Wells (b. 1940 )

British populist of mathematics best known for his various "curious and interesting" dictionaries.
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##### Kenneth George Binmore (b. 1940 )

British mathematician, economist, and game theorist.

Awarded CBE in 2001 for his contributions to game theory and his role in 3G telecommunications.
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##### Peter Michael Neumann (b. 1940 )

British mathematician working mainly in the field of group theory.

Famous for solving Alhazen's Problem in 1997.

Son of Bernhard Hermann Neumann and Hanna Neumann.
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##### John Michael Pollard (b. 1941 )

British mathematician who has invented algorithms for the factorization of large numbers and for the calculation of discrete logarithms.
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##### David Orme Tall (b. 1941 )

British mathematician mainly working in the field of educational psychology.

Also known for the books he has co-written with Ian Stewart.
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##### Wilfrid Augustine Hodges (b. 1941 )

British mathematician known for his work in model theory.
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##### Stephen William Hawking (1942 – 2018)

British mathematician, physicist and cosmologist best known for his works of popular science.
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##### Alan G. Hamilton (b. 1943 )

British mathematician working in mathematical logic.
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##### Robin James Wilson (b. 1943 )

British mathematician whose academic interests lie in graph theory, particularly in colouring problems, for example the four colour problem, and algebraic properties of graphs.
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##### Martin Neil Huxley (b. 1944 )

British mathematician, working in the field of analytic number theory.
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##### Nigel J. Cutland (b. 1944 )

British mathematician whose main fields of interest are non-standard analysis, Loeb spaces, and applications in probability and stochastic analysis.
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##### Robert Charles Vaughan (b. 1945 )

**Bob Vaughan** is a British mathematician whose main work is in analytic number theory.
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##### Timothy Poston (b. 1945 )

British mathematician and physicist best known for work in catastrophe theory.

Also the scientific and mathematical advisor to Genesis P-Orridge.
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##### John J. O'Connor (b. 1945 )

English-born mathematician who has worked in the fields of topology and computational algebra.

He is one of the owners of the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive along with Edmund F. Robertson.
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##### Ian Nicholas Stewart (b. 1945 )

English mathematician who has made considerable contributions to the field of catastrophe theory.

He is more famous, however, as a popular writer and publicist of mathematics.

As one of the contributors to the *Science of Discworld* series, he was created an honorary Wizard of Unseen University.
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##### Ian Fraser Kilmister (1945 – 2015)

English rock musician better known as **Lemmy**.

Notable for writing the only song in rock music with the word parallelogram in its lyrics.
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##### David John Acheson (b. 1946 )

English mathematician best known for his book *1089 and all that*.
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##### Adrian Frederick Melhuish Smith (b. 1946 )

English statistician better known for his political influence than intellectual.
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##### Keith J. Devlin (b. 1947 )

English author and publicist of mathematics.
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##### Ian Chiswell (b. 1948 )

British mathematician whose main area of research is geometric group theory, especially the theory of trees.

Other interests have included cohomology of groups and ordered groups.
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##### Jeremy Stangroom (b. 1950 )

British author who specializes in writing about mathematical and scientific topics in an accessible manner.
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##### Geoffrey Richard Grimmett (b. 1950 )

English mathematician best known for his work in probability theory.
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##### Galen John Strawson (b. 1952 )

British analytic philosopher and literary critic working mainly on philosophy of mind and metaphysics, including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self.

Also writes on John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche.
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##### Andrew John Wiles (b. 1953 )

English mathematician famous for proving Fermat's Last Theorem, which he completed in 1994.
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##### Robert Arnott Wilson (b. 1958 )

English mathematician best known for his work on classifying the maximal subgroups of finite simple groups and for the work in the Monster group.
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##### Kate Bush (b. 1958 )

English musician and composer whose contribution to mathematics was to compose a piece called $\pi$ which contains (inaccurately) the first 150 or so digits of its decimal expansion.
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##### Stephen Wolfram (b. 1959 )

English mathematician best known for being the name behind Mathematica.

Much of his work has been in the field of cellular automata.
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##### Matt Westwood (b. 1960 )

British amateur mathematician best known for the discovery of Westwood's Puzzle.

One of the more tedious practitioners of the modern tendency towards Bourbakism.
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##### Richard Lawrence Taylor (b. 1962 )

British and American mathematician working in the field of number theory.

Collaborated with Andrew John Wiles on Fermat's Last Theorem.
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##### Andrew James Granville (b. 1962 )

British professor of mathematics working mainly in number theory.
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##### William Timothy Gowers (b. 1963 )

British mathematician most famous for connecting the fields of functional analysis and combinatorics.
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##### Trevor Dion Wooley (b. 1964 )

British mathematician interested in analytic number theory, Diophantine equations and harmonic analysis.
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##### Marcus Peter Francis du Sautoy (b. 1965 )

British professor of mathematics best known for his authorship of popular mathematical works.

Also a TV presenter.
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##### Ruth Elke Lawrence-Neimark (b. 1971 )

British-Israeli mathematician involved in research in knot theory and algebraic topology.

Famously a child prodigy who obtained her first-class degree at age $13$.
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## Wales

##### Robert Recorde (1510 – 1558)

Welsh physician and mathematician.

Best known for inventing the equals sign. This was just part of his contribution towards the development and systematization of mathematical notation.
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##### William Jones (1675 – 1749)

Welsh mathematician who has recently come to notice for being the first to use the symbol $\pi$ (pi) in print to represent the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

Close friend of Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley.

On his death, left behind him a library of about $15 \, 000$ books, which was probably the most valuable library of mathematics in England. This has only recently been fully dispersed.
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##### Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872 – 1970)

British philosopher, mathematician and logician.

Best known for his co-authorship with Alfred North Whitehead of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.
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##### Neil James Alexander Sloane (b. 1939 )

British mathematician whose major contributions are in the fields of combinatorics, error-correcting codes, and sphere packing.

Best known for being the creator and maintainer of the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS).
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##### Carol Jean Vorderman (b. 1960 )

British mathematically literate TV presenter best known for having presented Countdown for $26$ years.

Has intensive involvement in the British government's initiative to improve the mathematical literacy of school students. Whether you consider this as a point in her favour or against her depends on how cynically you view the government of the United Kingdom. It is worth pointing out that the website presented in her name has had a mixed reception.

A $3$rd-class degree from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge is known as a **Vorderman** in her honour.
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## Scotland

##### John Napier (1550 – 1617)

Scots mathematician famous for his development of natural logarithms.
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##### James Gregory (1638 – 1675)

Scottish mathematician and astronomer best known for designing the Gregorian telescope.

Made advances in trigonometry, discovering infinite series representations for several trigonometric functions.
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##### David Gregory (1659 – 1708)

Scottish mathematician and astronomer.

Professor of mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, Savilian Professor of Astronomy at the University of Oxford.

Commentator on Isaac Newton's *Principia*.
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##### Robert Simson (1687 – 1768)

Scots mathematician notable for having produced a translation of Euclid's *The Elements* which was long used as the standard text.
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##### James Stirling (1692 – 1770)

Scottish mathematician best known for Stirling's Formula.

One of the first to study what is now known as the Gamma function.
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##### Colin Maclaurin (1698 – 1746)

Held the record for almost 300 years as the youngest professor in history.

Worked extensively on elliptic functions.

Best known nowadays for Maclaurin Series.
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##### Matthew Stewart (1717 – 1785)

Scottish mathematician who made significant contributions to the fields of geometry and astronomy.
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##### James Watt (I) (1736 – 1819)

Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist best known for his steam engine.
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##### John Playfair (1748 – 1819)

Scots mathematician and scientific philosopher who was an early proponent of the philosophical position that physical laws are the same throughout the universe and do not change with time.

Also credited with Playfair's axiom, an alternative (and easier to digest) form of Euclid's Fifth Postulate, although he himself did not originate it.
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##### William Wallace (1768 – 1843)

Scottish mathematician and astronomer best known for the Wallace-Bolyai-Gerwien Theorem.
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##### James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879)

Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

Most noted for his theory of electromagnetic radiation.

Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.
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##### William Carmichael McIntosh (1838 – 1931)

Scottish physician and marine zoologist.

Served as president of the Ray Society, and as vice-president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
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##### Andrew Gray (1847 – 1925)

Scots mathematician and physicist who worked on electromagnetism, dynamics and Bessel functions.
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##### William Roger Paton (1857 – 1921)

Scottish scholar of Greek who provided a translation of *The Greek Anthology Book XIV* containing mathematical puzzles and riddles.
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##### Andrew Russell Forsyth (1858 – 1942)

Scottish mathematician best known as the author of treatises.
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##### John Dougall (1867 – 1960)

Scottish mathematician best known for his work in combinatorics.
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##### Horatio Scott Carslaw (1870 – 1954)

Scottish-Australian mathematician best known for his work on the conduction of heat in solids.
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##### Robert John Tainsh Bell (1876 – 1963)

Scottish mathematician noted for his work in solid geometry.
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##### James Colquhoun Irvine (1877 – 1952)

Scottish organic chemist.

Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from $1921$ until his death.

Worked on the application of methylation techniques to carbohydrates.

Isolated the first methylated sugars, trimethyl and tetramethyl glucose.
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##### Duncan MacLaren Young Sommerville (1879 – 1934)

Scots mathematician best known for his work in geometry, including non-Euclidean.

A founder, and first secretary, of the New Zealand Astronomical Society.
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##### Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn (1882 – 1948)

Scottish mathematician most famous for his work in abstract algebra.
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##### Eric Temple Bell (1883 – 1960)

Scottish mathematician now more famous for his popular work on the history of mathematics *Men of Mathematics*.

Did research in number theory and analysis, and (less than successfully) worked on putting umbral calculus on a sound logical footing.

Also noted (in certain circles) for writing science fiction (under the pseudonym **John Taine**) and poetry.
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##### Thomas Murray MacRobert (1884 – 1962)

British mathematician working mainly in analysis.
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##### Hyman Levy (1889 – 1975)

Scottish philosopher, mathematician and political activist.

Aeronautics researcher at the National Physical Laboratory.

Published papers and books on mathematical applications pertaining to aeronautics.

Wrote about differential equations and probability.
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##### William Marshall Smart (1889 – 1975)

Scottish astronomer who authored the famous *Textbook on Spherical Astronomy*.
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##### Robert Pollock Gillespie (1903 – 1977)

Scottish mathematician who published several important books on mathematics.
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##### James Morton Hyslop (1908 – 1984)

Scottish mathematician and educationalist primarily linked to South Africa.

Founded the Royal College of Nairobi in $1961$.
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##### Alexander Kirkland Cairncross (1911 – 1998)

British economist.
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##### Daniel Martin (1915 – 2007)

British mathematician working mainly as a teacher of calculus.
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##### Ian Naismith Sneddon (1919 – 2000)

British applied mathematician who is most noted for his work researching elasticity.
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##### Donald Cecil Pack (1920 – 2016)

British mathematician who lectured at Strathclyde University.
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##### Ben Noble (1922 – 2006)

British mathematician best known for his work in numerical analysis.
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##### John Hunter (1922 – 2013)

Scottish mathematician best known for his textbooks.
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##### James Alexander Green (1926 – 2014)

Scottish mathematician who worked in the field of representation theory.
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##### Iain Thomas Arthur Carpenter Adamson (1928 – 2010)

Scottish mathematician best known for his work in field theory.
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##### John Mackintosh Howie (1936 – 2011)

Scottish mathematician whose specialty was semigroups.
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##### James David McCawley (1938 – 1999)

Scots-born American linguist with a training in mathematics.

His main contribution to mathematics has been his excellent translations of mathematics textbooks into English.
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##### Thomas Scott Blyth (b. 1938 )

Scottish mathematician working in abstract algebra.
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##### Derek John Scott Robinson (b. 1938 )

Scottish mathematician who deals with algebra (group theory, homologous algebra).
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##### Edmund Frederick Robertson (b. 1943 )

Scots mathematician currently a Professor of Mathematics at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.

He is one of the owners of the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive along with John J. O'Connor.
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##### Jonathan Michael Borwein (1951 – 2016)

Scottish mathematician of varied accomplishments.

A public advocate of experimental mathematics, with David Harold Bailey.
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##### Peter Benjamin Borwein (b. 1953 )

Scottish mathematician best known for his contribution towards the Bailey-Borwein-Plouffe Algorithm.
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## Northern Ireland

##### William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824 – 1907)

British mathematical physicist and engineer who did important work in:

- the mathematical analysis of electricity
- formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics
- unification of the discipline of modern physics

Received a knighthood from Queen Victoria for his work on the development of the transatlantic electric telegraph project.
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##### John Greenlees Semple (1904 – 1985)

British mathematician whose most important work was in algebraic geometry.
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##### John Todd (1911 – 2007)

Northern Irish mathematician who was a pioneer in the field of numerical analysis.
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## Other

##### Augustus De Morgan (1806 – 1871)

British mathematician and logician best known for De Morgan's laws.

Also introduced and made rigorous the Principle of Mathematical Induction.
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##### Percy Alexander MacMahon (1854 – 1929)

British mathematician especially noted in connection with the partitions of numbers and enumerative combinatorics.
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##### Charles Planck (1856 – 1935)

English mathematician best known for his discovery of an order $9$ perfect magic cube, accomplished in $1905$.
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##### Erik Christopher Zeeman (1925 – 2016)

British mathematician known for his work in geometric topology and singularity theory.
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##### Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble (1932 – 2016)

British theoretical physicist, mainly working in quantum field theory, especially the interface between high-energy particle physics and cosmology.

Best known as one of the first to describe the Higgs mechanism, and for his research on topological defects.

From the 1950s was concerned about the nuclear arms race.

From 1970 took leading roles in promoting the social responsibility of the scientist.

Senior research investigator at the Blackett Laboratory and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London.
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##### Charles Antony Richard Hoare (b. 1934 )

British mathematician and computer scientist best known for devising the Quicksort algorithm.
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## Unknown (to be researched)

##### Percival Abbott (1869 – 1954)

British mathematician known for writing accessible textbooks for self-learning.
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##### Edgar Giraldus Phillips (b. 1897 )

British mathematician known for his textbooks.
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##### Celia Mary Hoyles (b. 1946 )

British mathematician, educationalist, academic and (at one point in her career) a TV presenter.
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##### Michael R.A. Huth (b. 1962 )

British mathematician majoring in computer science.
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