# Product Rule for Counting

## Theorem

Let it be possible to choose an element $\alpha$ from a given set $S$ in $m$ different ways.

Let it be possible to choose an element $\beta$ from a given set $T$ in $n$ different ways.

Then the ordered pair $\tuple {\alpha, \beta}$ can be chosen from the cartesian product $S \times T$ in $m n$ different ways.

### General Theorem

Suppose a process can be broken into $m$ successive, ordered, stages, with the $i$th stage having $r_i$ possible outcomes (for $i = 1, \ldots, m$).

Let the number of outcomes at each stage be independent of the choices in previous stages

Let the composite outcomes be all distinct.

Then the total procedure has $\ds \prod_{i \mathop = 1}^m r_i$ different composite outcomes.

## Proof

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The validity of this rule follows directly from the definition of multiplication of integers.

The product $a b$ (for $a, b \in \N_{>0}$) is the number of sequences $\sequence {A, B}$, where $A$ can be any one of $a$ items and $B$ can be any one of $b$ items.

$\blacksquare$

## Also known as

Some sources give this as the General Combinatorial Principle.

Some sources call it the **$r$, $s$ principle**: if one operation can be performed in $r$ different ways, and if another operation can be performed in $s$ different ways, the two operations can be performed in succession in $r \times s$ different ways.

## Examples

### Choices from $2$ and $3$

The canonical example concerns choices from the menu at a restaurant:

You may select exactly one dish from each category:

- Starters

- $(1): \quad$ Crottled Greeps
- $(2): \quad$ Stone Soup
- $(3): \quad$ Petty-Dwarf Roots

- Main Course

- $(1): \quad$ Hufu Salad
- $(2): \quad$ Braised Trake in Funistrada

The diner then has $2 \times 3 = 6$ possible different meals:

- $(1): \quad$ Crottled Greeps with Hufu Salad
- $(2): \quad$ Crottled Greeps with Braised Trake in Funistrada

- $(3): \quad$ Stone Soup with Hufu Salad
- $(4): \quad$ Stone Soup with Braised Trake in Funistrada

- $(5): \quad$ Petty-Dwarf Roots with Hufu Salad
- $(6): \quad$ Petty-Dwarf Roots with Braised Trake in Funistrada

### Choices from $4$, $3$ and $2$

Let $N$ be the number of ways you can choose at least $1$ item of fruit from:

- $4$ (indistinguishable) oranges
- $3$ (indistinguishable) bananas
- $2$ (indistinguishable) apples

Then:

- $N = 59$

### Choices from $5$ and $3$

There are:

- $5$ different ways to travel from $A$ to $B$
- $3$ different ways to travel from $B$ to $C$.

Hence there are $5 \times 3 = 15$ different ways to travel from $A$ to $C$.

### $6$ Football Matches

Let it be understood that a football match between two teams $\text A$ and $\text B$ can end as:

- A win for team $\text A$
- A draw
- A loss for team $\text A$.

That being understood, then there are $729$ ways to predict the results of $6$ football matches.

## Also see

## Sources

- 1932: Clement V. Durell:
*Advanced Algebra: Volume $\text { I }$*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text I$ Permutations and Combinations: The $r$, $s$ Principle: Example $1$. - 1971: George E. Andrews:
*Number Theory*... (previous) ... (next): $\text {3-1}$ Permutations and Combinations