# Proof by Contradiction for Hilbert Proof System Instance 1 for Predicate Logic

## Theorem

Let $\LL$ be the language of predicate logic.

Let $\mathscr H$ be instance 1 of a Hilbert proof system for predicate logic.

Then Proof by Contradiction is a derived rule of $\mathscr H$:

If, by making an assumption $\phi$, we can infer a contradiction as a consequence, then we may infer $\neg \phi$.
The conclusion $\neg \phi$ does not depend upon the assumption $\phi$.

## Proof

Suppose that $\Sigma, \phi \vdash_{\mathscr H} \bot$.

By Contradictory Antecedent, $\bot \implies \neg\phi$ is a tautology.

Therefore, $\bot \implies \neg\phi$ is an axiom of $\mathscr H$, so that by Modus Ponendo Ponens:

$\Sigma, \phi \vdash_{\mathscr H} \neg \phi$

By Deduction Theorem for Hilbert Proof System for Predicate Logic, it follows that:

$\Sigma \vdash_{\mathscr H} \phi \implies \neg \phi$

Next, note that $\paren {\phi \implies \neg \phi} \implies \neg \phi$ is a tautology and so an axiom of $\mathscr H$.

Hence by Modus Ponendo Ponens:

$\Sigma \vdash_{\mathscr H} \neg \phi$

$\blacksquare$