# Terminal Velocity of Body under Fall Retarded Proportional to Velocity

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## Theorem

Let $B$ be a body falling in a gravitational field.

Let $B$ be falling through a medium which exerts a resisting force $k \mathbf v$ upon $B$ which is proportional to the velocity of $B$ relative to the medium.

Then the terminal velocity of $B$ is given by:

- $v = \dfrac {g m} k$

## Proof

Let $B$ start from rest.

The differential equation governing the motion of $B$ is given by:

- $m \dfrac {\d^2 \mathbf s} {\d t^2} = m \mathbf g - k \dfrac {\d \mathbf s} {\d t}$

Dividing through by $m$ and setting $c = \dfrac k m$ gives:

- $\dfrac {\d^2 \mathbf s} {\d t^2} = \mathbf g - c \dfrac {\d \mathbf s} {\d t}$

By definition of velocity:

- $\dfrac {\d \mathbf v} {\d t} = \mathbf g - c \mathbf v$

and so:

\(\displaystyle \int \dfrac {\d \mathbf v} {\mathbf g - c \mathbf v}\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \int \rd t\) | |||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \leadsto \ \ \) | \(\displaystyle -\dfrac 1 c \, \map \ln {\mathbf g - c \mathbf v}\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle t + c_1\) | ||||||||||

\(\displaystyle \leadsto \ \ \) | \(\displaystyle \mathbf g - c \mathbf v\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \mathbf c_2 e^{-c t}\) |

When $t = 0$ we have that $\mathbf v = 0$ and so:

- $\mathbf c_2 = \mathbf g$

Hence by taking magnitudes:

- $v = \dfrac g c \paren {1 - e^{-c t} }$

Since $c > 0$ it follows that $v \to \dfrac g c$ as $t \to \infty$.

Thus in the limit:

- $v = \dfrac g c = \dfrac {g m} k$

$\blacksquare$

## Sources

- 1972: George F. Simmons:
*Differential Equations*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.5$: Falling Bodies and Other Rate Problems