# Brouwer's Fixed Point Theorem

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## Theorem

### One-Dimensional Version

Let $f: \closedint a b \to \closedint a b$ be a real function which is continuous on the closed interval $\closedint a b$.

Then:

- $\exists \xi \in \closedint a b: \map f \xi = \xi$

That is, a continuous real function from a closed real interval to itself fixes some point of that interval.

### Smooth Mapping

A smooth mapping $f$ of the closed unit ball $B^n \subset \R^n$ into itself has a fixed point:

- $\forall f \in C^\infty \left({B^n \to B^n}\right): \exists x \in B^n: f \left({x}\right) = x$

## Source of Name

This entry was named for Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer.

## Sources

- 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Entry:**Brouwer's theorem**