# Element is Member of Base iff Not Loop

## Theorem

Let $M = \struct{S, \mathscr I}$ be a matroid.

Let $\mathscr B$ denote the set of all bases of $M$.

Let $x \in S$.

Then:

$\exists B \in \mathscr B : x \in B$ if and only if $x$ is not a loop

## Proof

### Necessary Condition

Let $B \in \mathscr B$ such that $x \in B$.

$\set x \subseteq B$

By definition of a base:

$B \in \mathscr I$

From matroid axiom $(I2)$:

$\set x \in \mathscr I$

Then $\set x$ is not a dependent subset by definition.

It follows that $x$ is not a loop by definition.

$\Box$

### Sufficient Condition

Let $x$ not be a loop.

By definition of a loop:

$x$ is not a dependent subset

By definition of a dependent subset:

$x \in \mathscr I$
$\exists B \in \mathscr B: \set x \subseteq B$

By definition of a subset:

$x \in B$

$\blacksquare$