# Integer has Multiplicative Order Modulo n iff Coprime to n

## Theorem

Let $a$ and $n$ be integers.

Let the multiplicative order of $a$ modulo $n$ exist.

Then $a \perp n$, that is, $a$ and $n$ are coprime.

## Proof

### Necessary Condition

Suppose $c \in \Z_{>0}$ is the multiplicative order of $a$ modulo $n$.

Then by definition:

$a^c \equiv 1 \pmod n$

Hence, by definition, $a^c = k n + 1$ for some $k \in \Z$.

Thus:

$a r + n s = 1$

where $r = a^{c-1}$ and $s = -k$.

It follows from Integer Combination of Coprime Integers that $a$ and $n$ are coprime.

### Sufficient Condition

Suppose $a \perp n$.

Then by Euler's Theorem:

$a^{\phi \left({n}\right)} \equiv 1 \pmod n$

where $\phi \left({n}\right)$ is the Euler Phi Function of $n$.

Hence the multiplicative order of $a$ modulo $n$ exists, by taking $c = \phi \left({n}\right)$.

$\blacksquare$