Mathematician:Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano
Bohemian priest who was also a mathematician, logician, theologian and philosopher.
A major precursor of the wave of development of analysis in the late $19$th century.
- Born: 5 Oct 1781 in Prague, Bohemia, Austrian Habsburg domain (now Czech Republic)
- 1791 to 1796: Attended Piarist Gymnasium in Prague
- 1796: Entered faculty of Philosophy at Charles University of Prague, studying philosophy, physics and mathematics
- 1799 to 1800: undertook research in mathematics with František Josef Gerstner
- 1800: Began three years of theological study at Charles University, at the same time preparing a doctoral thesis in geometry
- 1804: Received doctorate in mathematics and ordained as a Roman Catholic priest
- 1807: Granted a chair at University of Prague in the philosophy of religion
- 1815: Elected to the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences
- 1816: Charges brought against him at the court of Vienna
- 1818: Elected Dean of Faculty of Philosophy at Charles University
- December 1819: Dismissed from his position, placed under house arrest and forbidden to publish.
- 1821 to 1825: Tried by the Church, required to recant his supposed heresies
- 1823 to 1830: Lived during the summer near Techobuz, with his friends Josef and Anna Hoffmann; during the winter lived in Prague with his brother Johann
- 1830 to 1841: Lived throughout the year with the Hoffmanns
- 1841: Move with the Hoffmanns to Prague, became active in Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences
- 1842 to 1843: President of Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences
- Died: 18 Dec 1848 in Prague, Bohemia (now Czech Republic)
Theorems and Definitions
- Intermediate Value Theorem, also known as Bolzano's Theorem
- Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem (independently of Karl Weierstrass)
Results named for Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano can be found here.
- 1810: Beyträge zu einer begründeteren Darstellung der Mathematik. Erste Lieferung
- 1816: Der binomische Lehrsatz
- 1816: On the Condition of the Two Nationalities in Bohemia
- 1817: Rein analytischer Beweis (Pure Analytical Proof)
- 1837: Wissenschaftslehre (Theory of Science)
- 1851: Paradoxien des Unendlichen (The Paradoxes of the Infinite) (contains the first instance in mathematical literature of the term Set)
Also known as
Some sources render his name as Bernard Bolzano.
- Weierstrass and Bolzano march arm-in-arm together through the history of mathematics, but not nearly enough seems to be known about Bolzano.
- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive