# Mathematician:Bertrand Arthur William Russell

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## Mathematician

British philosopher, mathematician and logician.

Best known for his co-authorship with Alfred North Whitehead of *Principia Mathematica*, published from $1910$.

## Nationality

Welsh

## History

- Born: 18 May 1872, Ravenscroft, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales
- 1890–4: Undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1894: Married Alys Pearsall Smith
- 1895: Elected Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1900: Attended International Congress of Philosophy, Paris
- 1908: Elected Fellow of the Royal Society
- 1908: Appointed Lecturer in the principles of mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1913: Met Wittgenstein
- 1914: Visiting Professor, Harvard University
- 1916: Fined £100 and deprived of his lectureship at Trinity College, Cambridge for writing a leaﬂet in defence of an imprisoned conscientious objector
- 1918: Imprisoned for anti-war article
- 1920: Visited Russia
- 1920–1: Visited China
- 1921: Marriage to Alys Russell dissolved
- 1921: Married Dora Black
- 1927: Founded Beacon Hill progressive school with Dora Russell
- 1935: Marriage to Dora Russell dissolved
- 1936: Married Patricia Spence
- 1938–44: Lived in U.S.A.
- 1944: Appointed Lecturer at Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1950: Awarded Order of Merit
- 1950: Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature
- 1952: Marriage to Patricia Spence dissolved
- 1952: Married Edith Finch
- 1956: Moved to North Wales
- 1957: Attended Pugwash Conference in Austria
- 1957: Helped to launch Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
- 1960: Supported civil disobedience and resigned from C.N.D.
- 1961: Imprisoned brieﬂy for taking part in demonstration organized by Committee of 100
- 1963: Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation and Atlantic Peace Foundation set up
- 1965: Resigned from Labour Party in protest against Government's Foreign Policy.
- 1966: First meeting of International War Crimes Tribunal
- Died: 2 Feb 1970, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales

## Theorems

Results named for **Bertrand Arthur William Russell** can be found here.

Definitions of concepts named for **Bertrand Arthur William Russell** can be found here.

## Publications

- 1908:
*Mathematical Logic as Based on the Theory of Types*(*Amer. J. Math.***Vol. 30**: pp. 222 – 262), in which the notation $\paren x$ was coined for the universal quantifier. - 1910 -- 1913:
*Principia Mathematica*(with Alfred North Whitehead)- 1910:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 1*(with Alfred North Whitehead) - 1912:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 2*(with Alfred North Whitehead) - 1913:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 3*(with Alfred North Whitehead)

- 1910:
- 1913:
*The Problems of Philosophy* - 1914:
*Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientiﬁc Method in Philosophy*(Lowell Lectures) - 1917:
*Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays* - 1919:
*Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy* - 1919:
*The Philosophy of Logical Atomism* - 1921:
*The Analysis of Mind* - 1924:
*Logical Atomism* - 1927:
*The Analysis of Matter* - 1928:
*Sceptical Essays* - 1929:
*Marriage and Morals* - 1931:
*The Scientiﬁc Outlook* - 1940:
*An Inquiry Into Meaning and Truth* - 1945:
*A History of Western Philosophy* - 1944:
*My Mental Development and Reply to Criticism*(in*The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell*, ed. P. A. Schilpp) - 1948:
*Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits* - 1949:
*Authority and the Individual*(first of the Reith Lectures) - 1954:
*Man's Peril*(B.B.C. broadcast on nuclear warfare) - 1955:
*Man's Peril*(manifesto, based on the above broadcast) - 1959:
*My Philosophical Development* - 1967:
*War Crimes in Vietnam* - 1967:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol I* - 1968:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol II* - 1969:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol III*

## Notable Quotes

*The rules of logic are to mathematics what those of structure are to architecture.*

*Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture.*

*Pure mathematics consists entirely of assertions to the effect that if such and such a proposition is true of anything, then such and such another proposition is true of that thing. It is essential not to discuss whether the first proposition is really true, and not to mention what the anything is of which it is supposed to be true ... Thus mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true.*- --
*Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays*(1917)

- --

*To create a healthy philosophy, you should renounce metaphysics but be a good mathematician.*- in a lecture (1935)
- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*:*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say*

*There was a footpath leading across fields to New Southgate, and I used to go there alone and watch the sunset and contemplate suicide. I did not, however, commit suicide, because I wished to know more of mathematics.*- from his autobiography
- -- Quoted in 1990: William Dunham:
*Journey Through Genius*: Preface

## Also known as

Also known as:

- the
**3rd Earl Russell** **Lord Bertrand Arthur William Russell**.

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Bertrand Arthur William Russell": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say* - 1944: Eugene P. Northrop:
*Riddles in Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter One: What is a Paradox? - 1946: Alfred Tarski:
*Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S \text{II}.6$: Logical Constants (footnote) - 1951: Willard Van Orman Quine:
*Mathematical Logic*(revised ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Introduction - 1959: A.H. Basson and D.J. O'Connor:
*Introduction to Symbolic Logic*(3rd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text I$ Introductory: $1$. Symbolic Logic and Classical Logic - 1989: Ephraim J. Borowski and Jonathan M. Borwein:
*Dictionary of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):**Russell, Lord Bertrand Arthur William**(1872-1970) - 1990: William Dunham:
*Journey Through Genius*... (next): Preface - 1993: Richard J. Trudeau:
*Introduction to Graph Theory*... (previous) ... (next): $1$. Pure Mathematics: Why study pure mathematics? - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Russell, Bertrand Arthur William**(1872-1970) - 2005: Clifford A. Pickover:
*A Passion for Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next): Numbers, History, Society, and People: Mathematics and beauty - 2008: David Joyner:
*Adventures in Group Theory*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Elementary, my dear Watson: $\S 1.1$: You have a logical mind if... - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Russell, Bertrand Arthur William**(1872-1970) - 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Russell, Bertrand Arthur William**(1872-1970)