# Mathematician:Bertrand Arthur William Russell

## Contents

## Mathematician

**Bertrand Russell**, also known as the **3rd Earl Russell**, was a British philosopher, mathematician and logician.

Best known for his co-authorship with Alfred North Whitehead of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.

## Nationality

Welsh

## History

- Born: 18 May 1872, Ravenscroft, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Wales
- 1890–4: Undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1894: Married Alys Pearsall Smith
- 1895: Elected Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1900: Attended International Congress of Philosophy, Paris
- 1908: Elected Fellow of the Royal Society
- 1908: Appointed Lecturer in the principles of mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1913: Met Wittgenstein
- 1914: Visiting Professor, Harvard University
- 1916: Fined £100 and deprived of his lectureship at Trinity College, Cambridge for writing a leaﬂet in defence of an imprisoned conscientious objector
- 1918: Imprisoned for anti-war article
- 1920: Visited Russia
- 1920–1: Visited China
- 1921: Marriage to Alys Russell dissolved
- 1921: Married Dora Black
- 1927: Founded Beacon Hill progressive school with Dora Russell
- 1935: Marriage to Dora Russell dissolved
- 1936: Married Patricia Spence
- 1938–44: Lived in U.S.A.
- 1944: Appointed Lecturer at Trinity College, Cambridge
- 1950: Awarded Order of Merit
- 1950: Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature
- 1952: Marriage to Patricia Spence dissolved
- 1952: Married Edith Finch
- 1956: Moved to North Wales
- 1957: Attended Pugwash Conference in Austria
- 1957: Helped to launch Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
- 1960: Supported civil disobedience and resigned from C.N.D.
- 1961: Imprisoned brieﬂy for taking part in demonstration organized by Committee of 100
- 1963: Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation and [Atlantic Peace Foundation] set up
- 1965: Resigned from Labour Party in protest against Government's Foreign Policy.
- 1966: First meeting of International War Crimes Tribunal
- Died: 2 Feb 1970, Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales

## Theorems

Results named for **Bertrand Arthur William Russell** can be found here.

## Publications

- 1903:
*Principles of Mathematics* - 1908:
*Mathematical Logic as Based on the Theory of Types*(*Amer. J. Math.***Vol. 30**: 222 – 262), in which the notation $\paren x$ was coined for the universal quantifier. - 1910 -- 1913:
*Principia Mathematica*(with Alfred North Whitehead)- 1910:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 1*(with Alfred North Whitehead) - 1912:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 2*(with Alfred North Whitehead) - 1913:
*Principia Mathematica, Volume 3*(with Alfred North Whitehead)

- 1910:
- 1913:
*The Problems of Philosophy* - 1914:
*Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientiﬁc Method in Philosophy*(Lowell Lectures) - 1917:
*Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays* - 1919:
*Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy* - 1919:
*The Philosophy of Logical Atomism* - 1921:
*The Analysis of Mind* - 1924:
*Logical Atomism* - 1927:
*The Analysis of Matter* - 1928:
*Sceptical Essays* - 1929:
*Marriage and Morals* - 1931:
*The Scientiﬁc Outlook* - 1940:
*An Inquiry Into Meaning and Truth* - 1945:
*A History of Western Philosophy* - 1944:
*My Mental Development and Reply to Criticism*(in*The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell*, ed. P. A. Schilpp) - 1948:
*Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits* - 1949:
*Authority and the Individual*(first of the Reith Lectures) - 1954:
*Man's Peril*(B.B.C. broadcast on nuclear warfare) - 1955:
*Man's Peril*(manifesto, based on the above broadcast) - 1959:
*My Philosophical Development* - 1967:
*War Crimes in Vietnam* - 1967:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol I* - 1968:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol II* - 1969:
*The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell Vol III*

## Notable Quotes

*The rules of logic are to mathematics what those of structure are to architecture.*- --
*Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays*(1917)

- --

*To create a healthy philosophy, you should renounce metaphysics but be a good mathematician.*- in a lecture (1935)
- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*:*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say*

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Bertrand Arthur William Russell": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say* - 1946: Alfred Tarski:
*Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S \text{II}.6$: Logical Constants (footnote) - 1951: Willard Van Orman Quine:
*Mathematical Logic*(revised ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Introduction - 1959: A.H. Basson and D.J. O'Connor:
*Introduction to Symbolic Logic*(3rd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.1$: Symbolic Logic and Classical Logic - 2008: David Joyner:
*Adventures in Group Theory*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Elementary, my dear Watson: $\S 1.1$: You have a logical mind if...