# Squaring the Circle by Compass and Straightedge Construction is Impossible/Historical Note

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## Historical Note on Squaring the Circle by Compass and Straightedge Construction is Impossible

The crucial final step in the proof of the age-old classic problem of Squaring the Circle was made by Ferdinand von Lindemann, who proved in $1882$ that $\pi$ is transcendental.

## Sources

- 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text{II}$: Modern Minds in Ancient Bodies - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {A}.29$: Liouville ($1809$ – $1882$) - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {B}.18$: Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers. $e$ is Transcendental