Symbols:Abbreviations/Q

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Q

Q.E.D.

Quod Erat Demonstrandum

The initials of Quod Erat Demonstrandum, which is Latin for which was to be demonstrated.

These initials were traditionally added to the end of a proof, after the last line which is supposed to contain the statement that was to be proved.


The usage is considered hopelessly old-fashioned nowadays, and is rarely seen outside nerd sitcoms.

The Halmos symbol $\blacksquare$ is usually used instead.


$\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$ universally uses $\blacksquare$ to signify the end of a proof.

The symbol $\Box$ is used to signify the end of a stage part way through a proof, where a subsidiary result is proved.


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