Definition:P-adic Number

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Let $p$ be any prime number.

Let $\norm {\,\cdot\,}_p$ be the $p$-adic norm on the rationals $\Q$.

By P-adic Norm is Non-Archimedean Norm then $\norm {\,\cdot\,}_p$ is a non-archimedean norm on $\Q$ and the pair $\struct {\Q, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$ is a valued field.

$p$-adic Norm Completion of Rational Numbers

The p-adic numbers, denoted $\struct {\Q_p, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$, is the unique (up to isometric isomorphism) non-Archimedean valued field that completes $\struct {\Q, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$.

Each element of $\Q_p$ is called a $p$-adic number.

Quotient of Cauchy Sequences in $p$-adic Norm

Let $\CC$ be the commutative ring of Cauchy sequences over $\struct {\Q, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$.

Let $\NN$ be the set of null sequences in $\struct {\Q, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$.

Let $\Q_p$ denote the quotient ring $\CC \, \big / \NN$.

Let $\norm {\, \cdot \,}_p:\Q_p \to \R_{\ge 0}$ be the norm on the quotient ring $\Q_p$ defined by:

$\ds \forall \sequence {x_n} + \NN: \norm {\sequence {x_n} + \NN }_p = \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \norm{x_n}_p$

By Corollary to Quotient Ring of Cauchy Sequences is Normed Division Ring, then $\struct {\Q_p, \norm {\, \cdot \,}_p}$ is a valued field.

Each left coset $\sequence {x_n} + \NN \in \CC \, \big / \NN$ is called a $p$-adic number.

The p-adic numbers is the valued field $\struct {\Q_p, \norm {\,\cdot\,}_p}$.

$p$-adic Norm on $\Q_p$

The norm $\norm {\,\cdot\,}_p$ on $\Q_p$ is called the $p$-adic norm on $\Q_p$.

Also denoted as

The $p$-adic numbers are often simply denoted as $\Q_p$ where the $p$-adic Norm is implied.

Also see