# Definition:Restriction

## Definition

### Restriction of a Relation

Let $\RR$ be a relation on $S \times T$.

Let $X \subseteq S$, $Y \subseteq T$.

The **restriction of $\RR$ to $X \times Y$** is the relation on $X \times Y$ defined as:

- $\RR {\restriction_{X \times Y} }: = R \cap \paren {X \times Y}$

where $R \subseteq S \times T$ is the subset of the Cartesian product of $S$ and $T$ which defines the relation $\RR$.

If $Y = T$, then we simply call this the **restriction of $\RR$ to $X$**, and denote it as $\RR {\restriction_X}$.

### Restriction of a Mapping

Let $f: S \to T$ be a mapping.

Let $X \subseteq S$.

Let $f \sqbrk X \subseteq Y \subseteq T$.

The **restriction of $f$ to $X \times Y$** is the mapping $f {\restriction_{X \times Y} }: X \to Y$ defined as:

- $f {\restriction_{X \times Y} } = f \cap \paren {X \times Y}$

If $Y = T$, then we simply call this the **restriction of $f$ to $X$**, and denote it as $f {\restriction_X}$.

### Restriction of an Operation

In the same way that a restriction is defined on a relation, it can be defined on a binary operation.

Let $\struct {S, \circ}$ be an algebraic structure.

Let $A, B \subseteq S$.

The **restriction of $\circ$ to $A \times B$** is denoted $\circ {\restriction_{A \times B} }$, and is defined as:

- $\forall a \in A, b \in B: a \mathbin {\circ {\restriction_{A \times B} } } b = a \circ b$

The notation $\circ {\restriction_{A \times B} }$ is generally used only if it is necessary to emphasise that $\circ {\restriction_{A \times B} }$ is strictly different from $\circ$ (through having a different domain).

When no confusion is likely to result, $\circ$ is generally used for both.

## Notation

The use of the symbol $\restriction$ is a recent innovation over the more commonly-encountered $\vert$.

Thus the notation $\RR \vert_{X \times Y}$ and $\struct {T, \circ \vert_T}$, etc. are currently more likely to be seen than $\RR {\restriction_{X \times Y} }$ and $\struct {T, \circ {\restriction_T} }$.

No doubt as the convention becomes more established, $\restriction$ will develop.

It is strongly arguable that $\restriction$, affectionately known as the **harpoon**, is preferable to $\vert$ as the latter is suffering from the potential ambiguity of overuse.

Some authors prefer not to subscript the subset, and render the notation as:

- $f \mathbin \restriction X = \set {\tuple {x, \map f x}: x \in X}$

but this is not recommended on $\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$ because it has less clarity.

Also note that it is commonplace even to omit the $\restriction$ symbol altogether, and merely render as $\RR_{X \times Y}$ or $\struct {T, \circ_T}$, and so on.

## Also see

## Technical Note

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(f {\restriction_{X \times Y} }: X \to Y\) is `f {\restriction_{X \times Y} }: X \to Y`

.

Note that because of the way MathJax renders the image, the restriction symbol and its subscript `\restriction_T`

need to be enclosed within braces `{ ... }`

in order for the spacing to be correct.

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(s \mathrel {\RR {\restriction_{X \times Y} } } t\) is `s \mathrel {\RR {\restriction_{X \times Y} } } t`

.

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(t_1 \mathbin {\circ {\restriction_T} } t_2\) is `t_1 \mathbin {\circ {\restriction_T} } t_2`

.

Again, note the use of `\mathrel { ... }`

and `\mathbin { ... }`

so as to render the spacing evenly.