Derivative of Exponential Function/Complex

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Theorem

The complex exponential function is its own derivative.

That is:

$\map {D_z} {\exp z} = \exp z$


Proof from Sequence Definition

Take the definition of $\exp$ to be the limit of the sequence $\left \langle{E_n}\right \rangle$ defined by:

$\displaystyle E_n \left( {z} \right) = \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^n$

Then $\left \langle{E_n}\right \rangle$ is uniformly convergent on compact subsets of $\C$.

Further, $\C$ is an open, connected subset of $\C$.

So the hypotheses of Derivative of Sequence of Holomorphic Functions are satisfied.

Hence:

\(\displaystyle D_z \left({\exp z}\right)\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle D_z \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^n\) Definition of Complex Exponential Function
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty} D_z \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^n\) Derivative of Sequence of Holomorphic Functions
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty} \left({ n \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^{n - 1} \times \frac 1 n}\right)\) Chain Rule
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty} \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^{n - 1}\)
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty} \left({ \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^n \times \frac n {n + z} }\right)\)
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \left({ \lim_{n \to \infty} \left({1 + \dfrac z n}\right)^n }\right) \times \left({ \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac n {n + z} }\right)\) Complex Derivative of Product is Product of Complex Derivative
\(\displaystyle \) \(=\) \(\displaystyle \exp z \times 1\) Definition of Complex Exponential Function

Hence the result.

$\blacksquare$