Fermat's Marginal Notes
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Fermat's Notes in the Margin of Diophantus's Arithmetica
The purpose of this page is to gather these notes together.
- Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadratoquadratum in duos quadratoquadratos et generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos ejusdem nominis fas est dividere: cujus rei demonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non caperet.
Loosely translated from the Latin, that means:
- The equation $x^n + y^n = z^n$ has no integral solutions when $n > 2$. I have discovered a perfectly marvellous proof, but this margin is not big enough to hold it.
- Every positive integer is triangular or the sum of $2$ or $3$ triangular numbers; a square or the sum of $2$, $3$ or $4$ squares; a pentagonal number or the sum of $2$, $3$, $4$ or $5$ pentagonal numbers; and so on to infinity, whether it is a question of hexagonal, heptagonal or any polygonal numbers.
- I cannot give the proof here, for it depends on many abstruse mysteries of numbers; but I intend to devote an entire book to this subject, and to present in this part of number theory astonishing advances beyond previously known boundaries.