# Graph containing Closed Walk of Odd Length also contains Odd Cycle

## Theorem

Let $G$ be a graph.

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Let $G$ have a closed walk of odd length.

Then $G$ has an odd cycle.

## Proof

Let $G = \struct {V, E}$ be a graph with closed walk whose length is odd.

From Closed Walk of Odd Length contains Odd Circuit, such a walk contains a circuit whose length is odd.

Let $C_1 = \tuple {v_1, \ldots, v_{2 n + 1} = v_1}$ be such a circuit.

Aiming for a contradiction, suppose $G$ has no odd cycles.

Then $C_1$ is not a cycle.

Hence, there exist a vertex $v_i$ where $2 \le i \le 2 n - 1$ and an integer $k$ such that $i + 1 \le k \le 2 n$ and $v_i = v_k$.

If $k - i$ is odd, then we have an odd circuit $\tuple {v_i, \ldots, v_k = v_i}$ smaller in length than $C_1$.

If $k - i$ is even, then $\tuple {v_1, \ldots, v_i, v_{k + 1}, \ldots, v_{2 n + 1} }$ is a circuit whose length is odd smaller in length than $C_2$.

This new odd length circuit is named $C_2$, and the same argument is applied as to $C_1$.

Thus at each step a circuit whose length is odd is reduced.

At the $n$th step for some $n \in \N$, either:

- $(1): \quad C_n$ is a cycle, which contradiction the supposition that $G$ has no odd cycles

or:

But from Circuit of Length 3 is Cycle, $C_n$ is a cycle, which by definition has odd length.

From this contradiction it follows that $G$ has at least one odd cycle.

$\blacksquare$