# Liouville's Theorem (Complex Analysis)/Proof 1

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## Theorem

Let $f: \C \to \C$ be a bounded entire function.

Then $f$ is constant.

## Proof

By assumption, there is $M \ge 0$ such that $\cmod {\map f z} \le M$ for all $z \in \C$.

For any $R \in \R: R > 0$, consider the function:

- $\map {f_R} z := \map f {R z}$

Using the Cauchy Integral Formula, we see that:

- $\ds \cmod {\map {f_R'} z} = \frac 1 {2 \pi} \cmod {\int_{\map {C_1} z} \frac {\map {f_R} w} {\paren {w - z}^2} \rd w} \le \frac 1 {2 \pi} \int_{\map {C_1} z} M \cmod {\d w} = M$

where $\map {C_1} z$ denotes the circle of radius $1$ around $z$.

Although this article appears correct, it's inelegant. There has to be a better way of doing it.In particular: $\int_{\map {C_1} z} M \cmod {\d w}$ must be defined.You can help $\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$ by redesigning it.To discuss this page in more detail, feel free to use the talk page.When this work has been completed, you may remove this instance of `{{Improve}}` from the code.If you would welcome a second opinion as to whether your work is correct, add a call to `{{Proofread}}` the page. |

Hence:

- $\ds \cmod {\map {f'} z} = \cmod {\map {f_R'} z} / R \le M / R$

Since $R$ was arbitrary, it follows that $\cmod {\map {f'} z} = 0$ for all $z \in \C$.

Thus $f$ is constant.

$\blacksquare$

## Source of Name

This entry was named for Joseph Liouville.