Mathematician:Douglas Richard Hofstadter

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American mathematician and philosopher most noted for the books he has written.

In particular, famous for being the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid.

Between 1981 and 1983, he took over from Martin Gardner the task of writing the Mathematical Games column in Scientific American, which he renamed to Metamagical Themas.




  • Born: February 15, 1945, New York

Theorems and Definitions



  • 1979: Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid
  • 1981: The Mind's I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul (co-edited with Daniel Dennett) (ISBN 0-465-03091-2 and ISBN 0-553-01412-9) (ISBN 0-553-34584-2)
  • 1985: Metamagical Themas (collection of Scientific American columns and other essays, all with postscripts) (ISBN 0-465-04566-9)
  • 1987: Ambigrammi: un microcosmo ideale per lo studio della creatività (in Italian only) (ISBN 88-7757-006-7)
  • 1995: Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies
  • 1996: Rhapsody on a Theme by Clément Marot. The Grace A. Tanner Lecture in Human Values
  • 1997: Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language (ISBN 0-465-08645-4)
  • 2000: Eugene Onegin: A Novel Versification (ISBN 0-465-02094-1)
  • 2002: Gödel's Proof (revised edition) by Ernest Nagel and James R. Newman, edited by Hofstadter (ISBN 0-8147-5816-9)
  • 2004: Foreword to Masters of Deception: Escher, Dali, and the Artists of Optical Illusion, edited by Al Seckel (Sterling Books: ISBN 1-4027-0577-8)
  • 2007: I Am a Strange Loop (ISBN 0-465-03078-5)


  • 1976: Energy levels and wave functions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields, Phys. Rev. B 14
  • 1982: Metafont, Metamathematics, and Metaphysics: Comments on Donald Knuth's Article 'The Concept of a Meta-Font' Scientific American (August 1982) (republished in the book Metamagical Themas)
  • 1987: A non-deterministic approach to analogy, involving the Ising model of ferromagnetism, in E. Caianiello (ed.), The Physics of Cognitive Processes. Teaneck, NJ: World Scientific.
  • 1989: To Err is Human; To Study Error-making is Cognitive Science, Michigan Quarterly Review, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2
  • 1995: Speechstuff and thoughtstuff: Musings on the resonances created by words and phrases via the subliminal perception of their buried parts, in Sture Allen (ed.), Of Thoughts and Words: The Relation between Language and Mind. Proceedings of the Nobel Symposium 92, London/New Jersey: World Scientific Publ.
  • 1995: On seeing A's and seeing As, Stanford Humanities Review 4,2
  • 2001: Analogy as the Core of Cognition, in Dedre Gentner, Keith Holyoak, and Boicho Kokinov (eds.) The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press/Bradford Book