# Mathematician:Martin Gardner

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## Mathematician

Colossally influential American mathematician and magician best known for the books he wrote (of which there were many) popularizing mathematics and science.

Author of the *Mathematical Games* column in *Scientific American* between $1956$ and $1981$. This position was taken over by Douglas R. Hofstadter.

Also contributed a series of "puzzle page" articles for *Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine* in the late 1970's to early 1980's.

Also wrote a column called *Notes of a Fringe Watcher* (originally *Notes of a Psi-Watcher*) from 1983 to 2002 for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry's periodical *Skeptical Inquirer*.

## Nationality

American

## History

- Born: 21 Oct 1914, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Died: 22 May 2010, Norman, Oklahoma, USA

## Theorems and Definitions

## Publications

- 1952:
*In the Name of Science*- 1957:
*Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science*(expansion of*In the Name of Science*)

- 1957:

- 1957:
*Science Puzzlers*

- 1957:
*Great Essays in Science*(as editor)- 1984:
*The Sacred Beetle and Other Great Essays in Science*(as editor: revised edition of*Great Essays in Science*)

- 1984:

- 1957:
*The Wizard of Oz and Who He Was*(with Russel B. Nye)- 1994:
*The Wizard of Oz and Who He Was*(with Russel B. Nye) (Revised edition)

- 1994:

- 1958:
*Logic Machines and Diagrams*

- 1959:
*The Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1960:
*The Annotated Alice*- 1990:
*More Annotated Alice*(a supplement to*The Annotated Alice*) - 1999:
*The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition*(updated edition of*The Annotated Alice*)

- 1990:

- 1961:
*The Second Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1962:
*The Annotated Snark*- 1998:
*The Annotated Snark*(Reprinted edition)

- 1998:

- 1962:
*Relativity for the Million*- 1976:
*The Relativity Explosion*(Revised and updated version of*Relativity for the Million*) - 1996:
*Relativity Simply Explained*(Revised and enlarged edition of*Relativity for the Million*and*The Relativity Explosion*)

- 1976:

- 1965:
*The Annotated Ancient Mariner*

- 1966:
*Martin Gardner's New Mathematical Diversions from Scientific American*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1967:
*Annotated Casey at the Bat: A Collection of Ballads about the Mighty Casey*

- 1967:
*The Numerology of Dr. Matrix*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)- 1976:
*The Incredible Dr. Matrix*(expanded edition of*The Numerology of Dr. Matrix*) - 1985:
*The Magic Numbers of Dr Matrix*(further expanded edition of*The Numerology of Dr. Matrix*and*The Incredible Dr. Matrix*)

- 1976:

- 1968: Editor of
*536 Puzzles & Curious Problems*by Henry Ernest Dudeney

- 1969:
*Unexpected Hangings, and Other Mathematical Diversions*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)- 1977:
*Further Mathematical Diversions*(reprint of*Unexpected Hangings, and Other Mathematical Diversions*) - 1991:
*The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions*(updated edition of*Unexpected Hangings, and Other Mathematical Diversions*)

- 1977:

- 1971:
*The Sixth Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1972:
*The Moscow Puzzles: 359 Mathematical Recreations*(English translation of*Математическая смекалка*by Boris A. Kordemsky) (as editor)

- 1973:
*The Flight of Peter Fromm*

- 1975:
*Mathematical Carnival*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1977:
*Mathematical Magic Show*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1978:
*Aha! Insight*

- 1979:
*Mathematical Circus*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1981:
*Science: Good, Bad, and Bogus*

- 1981:
*Entertaining Science Experiments With Everyday Objects*

- 1981:
*Science Fiction Puzzle Tales*(collection from*Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine*)

- 1982:
*Aha! Gotcha: Paradoxes to Puzzle and Delight (Tools for Transformation)*

- 1983:
*The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener*

- 1983:
*Order and Surprise*

- 1983:
*Wheels, Life, and Other Mathematical Amusements*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1984:
*Codes, Ciphers and Secret Writing*(also as*Test Your Code Breaking Skills*)

- 1984:
*Puzzles from Other Worlds*(collection from*Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine*)

- 1986:
*Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles*

- 1986:
*Knotted Doughnuts and Other Mathematical Entertainments*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1987:
*The No-Sided Professor and other tales of fantasy, humor, mystery, and philosophy*

- 1987:
*The Annotated Innocence of Father Brown*

- 1987:
*Riddles of the Sphinx*(collection from*Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine*)

- 1987:
*Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1988:
*Perplexing Puzzles and Tantalizing Teasers*

- 1988:
*New Age: Notes of a Fringe Watcher*(collection of*Notes of a Fringe Watcher*columns)

- 1989:
*Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1989:
*Steiner trees on a checkerboard*(with Fan Chung and R.L. Graham)

- 1991:
*The Annotated Night Before Christmas: A Collection Of Sequels, Parodies, And Imitations Of Clement Moore's Immortal Ballad About Santa Claus Edited, with an introduction and notes*

- 1991:
*Fractal Music, Hypercards and More*(collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 1992:
*On the Wild Side*(collection of*Notes of a Fringe Watcher*columns)

- 1993:
*The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy*

- 1994:
*My Best Mathematical and Logic Puzzles*

- 1995:
*Classic Brainteasers*

- 1995:
*Urantia: The Great Cult Mystery*

- 1996:
*Weird Water & Fuzzy Logic: More Notes of a Fringe Watcher*(collection of*Notes of a Fringe Watcher*columns)

- 1997:
*The Night Is Large: Collected Essays, 1938-1995*

- 1997:
*Last Recreations: Hydras, Eggs, and other Mathematical Mystifications*

- 1998:
*Calculus Made Easy*(Revisions and additions to the 1910 textbook*Calculus Made Easy*by Silvanus P. Thompson)

- 1998:
*Martin Gardner's Table Magic*

- 1998:
*Mathematical Recreations: A Collection in Honor of Martin Gardner*

- 1999:
*Gardner's Whys & Wherefores*

- 1999:
*The Annotated Thursday: G. K. Chesterton's Masterpiece, the Man Who Was Thursday by G. K. Chesterton*(edited by Martin Gardner)

- 2000:
*From the Wandering Jew to William F. Buckley, Jr.: On Science, Literature, and Religion*

- 2000:
*The Annotated Wizard of Oz*(introduction)

- 2001:
*A Gardner's Workout: Training the Mind and Entertaining the Spirit*

- 2001:
*Mathematical Puzzle Tales*(collection of articles from*Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine*)

- 2001:
*Did Adam and Eve Have Navels?: Debunking Pseudoscience*(collection of*Notes of a Fringe Watcher*columns)

- 2001:
*The Colossal Book of Mathematics: Classic Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Problems*(a "best of" collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 2002:
*Martin Gardner's Favorite Poetic Parodies*

- 2003:
*Are Universes Thicker Than Blackberries?: Discourses on Gödel, Magic Hexagrams, Little Red Riding Hood, and Other Mathematical and Pseudoscientific Topics*(collection of*Notes of a Fringe Watcher*columns and others)

- 2004:
*Smart Science Tricks*

- 2005:
*Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games*(CD-ROM version of the complete collection of*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 2006:
*The Colossal Book of Short Puzzles and Problems*(collection of puzzles from*Mathematical Games*columns)

- 2007:
*The Jinn from Hyperspace: And Other Scribblings—both Serious and Whimsical*

- 2008:
*Bamboozlers: The Book of Bankable Bar Betchas, Brain Bogglers, Belly Busters & Bewitchery by Diamond Jim Tyler*(introduction)

- 2009:
*When You Were a Tadpole and I was a Fish and other Speculations about This and That*

- 2009:
*The Upside-Down World of Gustave Verbeek*(introduction)

- 2014:
*The Magic and Mystery of Numbers*(posthumous collection)

### Mathematical Games columns in Scientific American

- October 1978:
*Mathematical Games: Puzzles and Number-Theory Problems Arising from the Curious Fractions of Ancient Egypt*(*Scientific American*)

## Notable Quotes

*Biographical history, as taught in our public schools, is still largely a history of boneheads: ridiculous kings and queens, paranoid political leaders, compulsive voyagers, ignorant generals -- the flotsam and jetsam of historical currents. The men who radically altered history, the great creative scientists and mathematicians, are seldom mentioned if at all.*- -- Epigraph to Part $\text A$ of 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*

- -- Epigraph to Part $\text A$ of 1992: George F. Simmons:

## Critical View

**WARNING**: Martin Gardner has turned dozens of innocent youngsters into math professors and thousands of math professors into innocent youngsters.- -- Persi Diaconis (quoted as a blurb on the dustcover of
*The Colossal Book of Short Puzzles and Problems*)

- -- Persi Diaconis (quoted as a blurb on the dustcover of

## Sources

- 1968: Henry Ernest Dudeney:
*536 Puzzles & Curious Problems*... (previous): About the Editor