# Proper Zero Divisor/Examples

## Examples of Proper Zero Divisors

### Proper Zero Divisors of Integer Multiplication Modulo $6$

Consider the multiplicative monoid of integers modulo $6$, defined by its Cayley table:

$\begin{array} {r|rrrrrr} \struct {\Z_6, \times_6} & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 \\ \hline \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 \\ \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 \\ \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 4 6 \\ \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 3 6 \\ \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 2 6 \\ \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 1 6 \\ \end{array}$

which can also be presented:

$\begin{array} {r|rrrrrr} \times_6 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 \\ \hline 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 \\ 2 & 0 & 2 & 4 & 0 & 2 & 4 \\ 3 & 0 & 3 & 0 & 3 & 0 & 3 \\ 4 & 0 & 4 & 2 & 0 & 4 & 2 \\ 5 & 0 & 5 & 4 & 3 & 2 & 1 \\ \end{array}$

Thus we have:

$\eqclass 2 6 \times \eqclass 3 6 = \eqclass 0 6$

and:

$\eqclass 4 6 \times \eqclass 3 6 = \eqclass 0 6$

Hence in the ring of integers modulo $6$, there are seen to be $3$ proper zero divisors: $\eqclass 2 6$, $\eqclass 3 6$ and $\eqclass 4 6$.