# Definition:Language of Predicate Logic/Alphabet

## Definition

The alphabet $\AA$ of the language of predicate logic $\LL_1$ is defined as follows:

### Letters

The letters of $\LL_1$ are separated in three classes:

Each of these three classes is handled differently by the formal grammar of predicate logic.

#### Variables

The variables constitute an infinite set $\mathrm{VAR}$ of arbitrary symbols, for example:

$\mathrm{VAR} = \set {x, y, z, x_0, y_0, z_0, x_1, y_1, z_1, \ldots}$

#### Predicate Symbols

The predicate symbols are a collection of arbitrary symbols.

Each of these symbols is considered to be endowed with an arity (a natural number $n \in \N$).

We agree to write $\PP$ for the set of predicate symbols, grouped by their arity:

$\PP = \set {\PP_0, \PP_1, \PP_2, \ldots, \PP_k, \ldots}$

The symbols in $\PP_0$ are inherited from the language of propositional logic.

For example, if $P \in \PP_5$ then $P$ is a quinternary predicate symbol.

#### Function Symbols

The function symbols are a collection (possibly empty) of arbitrary symbols.

Each of these symbols is considered to be endowed with an arity (a natural number $n \in \N$).

We agree to write $\FF$ for the set of function symbols, grouped by their arity:

$\FF = \set {\FF_0, \FF_1, \ldots, \FF_k, \ldots}$

The symbols in $\FF_0$ are often called parameters or constants.

Some sources write $\KK$ for the collection of parameters.

### Signs

The signs of $\LL_1$ are an extension of the signs of propositional logic.

They split in three classes:

#### Connectives

The connectives of $\LL_1$ comprise:

 $\ds \land$ $\ds :$ the conjunction sign $\ds \lor$ $\ds :$ the disjunction sign $\ds \implies$ $\ds :$ the conditional sign $\ds \iff$ $\ds :$ the biconditional sign $\ds \neg$ $\ds :$ the negation sign $\ds \top$ $\ds :$ the top sign $\ds \bot$ $\ds :$ the bottom sign

The symbols $\land, \lor, \implies$ and $\iff$ are called the binary connectives.

The symbols $\neg$ is called a unary connective.

The symbols $\top$ and $\bot$ are called the nullary connectives.

#### Quantifiers

The quantifiers of $\LL_1$ are:

 $\ds \exists$ $\ds :$ the existential quantifier sign $\ds \forall$ $\ds :$ the universal quantifier sign

#### Punctuation

The punctuation symbols used in $\LL_1$ are:

 $\ds ($ $\ds :$ the left parenthesis sign $\ds )$ $\ds :$ the right parenthesis sign $\ds :$ $\ds :$ the colon $\ds ,$ $\ds :$ the comma