Inner Automorphism Maps Subgroup to Itself iff Normal

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Let $G$ be a group.

For $x \in G$, let $\kappa_x$ denote the inner automorphism of $x$ in $G$.

Let $H$ be a subgroup of $G$.


$\forall x \in G: \kappa_x \sqbrk H = H$

if and only if:

$H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$.


Sufficient Condition

Let $H$ be a normal subgroup of $G$.

Let $x \in G$ be arbitrary.

By definition, $\kappa_x: G \to G$ is a mapping defined as:

$\forall g \in G: \map {\kappa_x} g = x g x^{-1}$

Let $n \in N$.


\(\ds \map {\kappa_x} n\) \(=\) \(\ds x n x^{-1}\)
\(\ds \) \(\in\) \(\ds N\) Definition of Normal Subgroup


Necessary Condition

Suppose that:

$\forall x \in G: \kappa_x \sqbrk H = H$

Let $x \in G$ be arbitrary.

By definition of inner automorphism of $x$ in $G$:

$\forall h \in H: x h x^{-1} \in H$

So, by definition, $H$ is a normal subgroup of $G$