Integers Divided by GCD are Coprime

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Theorem

Any pair of integers, not both zero, can be reduced to a pair of coprime ones by dividing them by their GCD:

$\gcd \left\{{a, b}\right\} = d \iff \dfrac a d, \dfrac b d \in \Z \land \gcd \left\{{\dfrac a d, \dfrac b d}\right\} = 1$


That is:

$\dfrac a {\gcd \left\{{a, b}\right\}} \perp \dfrac b {\gcd \left\{{a, b}\right\}}$


Alternatively it can be expressed so as not to include fractions:

$\gcd \left\{{a, b}\right\} = d \iff \exists s, t \in \Z: a = d s \land b = d t \land \gcd \left\{{s, t}\right\} = 1$


Proof

Let $d = \gcd \left\{{a, b}\right\}$.

We have:

$d \mathrel \backslash a \iff \exists s \in \Z: a = d s$
$d \mathrel \backslash b \iff \exists t \in \Z: b = d t$

So:

\(\displaystyle \exists m, n \in \Z: d\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle m a + n b\) $\quad$ Bézout's Identity $\quad$
\(\displaystyle \iff \ \ \) \(\displaystyle d\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle m d s + n d t\) $\quad$ definition of $s$ and $t$ $\quad$
\(\displaystyle \iff \ \ \) \(\displaystyle 1\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle m s + n t\) $\quad$ dividing through by $d$ $\quad$
\(\displaystyle \iff \ \ \) \(\displaystyle \gcd \left\{ {s, t}\right\}\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle 1\) $\quad$ Bézout's Identity $\quad$
\(\displaystyle \iff \ \ \) \(\displaystyle \gcd \left\{ {\frac a d, \frac b d}\right\}\) \(=\) \(\displaystyle 1\) $\quad$ definition of $s$ and $t$ $\quad$

$\blacksquare$


Sources