Mathematician:Eudoxus of Cnidus

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Greek astronomer and mathematician.

Pioneered work on proportion.

Introduced the astronomical globe.

Developed the method of exhaustion, this being an early precursor to integral calculus. This was later exploited by Archimedes.

Studied and practised medicine, and was also a practising legislator.

Studied in Tarentum under Archytas.

Moved to Athens, where he became a student of Plato.

Later in life, having become unpopular in Athens, moved to Cyzicus where he spent the remainder of his life.




  • Born: 410 or 408 BCE, Cnidus (on Resadiye peninsula), Asia Minor (now Knidos, Turkey)
  • Died: 355 or 347 BCE, Cnidus, Asia Minor (now Turkey)

Theorems and Definitions


No written works of his survive, although there are plenty of secondary sources.

These are the names of some of the books he wrote:

  • Disappearances of the Sun, possibly on eclipses
  • Oktaeteris (Ὀκταετηρίς), on an eight-year lunisolar cycle of the calendar
  • Phaenomena (Φαινόμενα) and Entropon (Ἔντροπον), on spherical astronomy, probably based on observations made by Eudoxus in Egypt and Cnidus
  • On Speeds, on planetary motions