# Mathematician:Josiah Willard Gibbs

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## Mathematician

American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

Also well-known for his work in statistical mechanics.

One of the students of Karl Weierstrass, under whom he studied analysis in $1868$.

Much of the chemical industry of the U.S. is directly dependent upon the work he did.

## Nationality

American

## History

- Born: 11 February 1839 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA
- 1854: Entered Yale
- 1858: Graduated from Yale, continued studies at New Haven
- 1863: Obtained Ph.D. from New Haven, appointed Tutor at Yale
- 1866: Visited Europe
- 1866 -- 67: Studied at Paris
- 1867 -- 69: Studied at Berlin and Heidelberg
- 1869: Returned to New Haven
- 1871: Appointed to Professorship at Yale
- Died: 28 April 1903 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA

## Theorems and Definitions

- Wilbraham-Gibbs Constant (independently of Henry Wilbraham)

Results named for **Josiah Willard Gibbs** can be found here.

Definitions of concepts named for **Josiah Willard Gibbs** can be found here.

## Publications

- 1873:
*Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids* - 1873:
*A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces* - 1876:
*On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (part 1)* - 1878:
*On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (part 2)* - 1881:
*Elements of Vector Analysis*

- 1891:
*Quaternions and the Ausdehnungslehre*(*Nature***Vol. 44**: pp. 79 – 82) - 1899:
*Fourier Series*(*Nature***Vol. 59**: p. 200) - 1899:
*Fourier Series*(*Nature***Vol. 59**: p. 606)

- 1901:
*Vector Analysis*(with Edwin Bidwell Wilson)- 1929:
*Vector Analysis, 2nd ed.*(with Edwin Bidwell Wilson)

- 1929:

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Josiah Willard Gibbs": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1921: C.E. Weatherburn:
*Elementary Vector Analysis*... (previous) ... (next): Historical Introduction - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {A}.33$: Weierstrass ($\text {1815}$ – $\text {1897}$) - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Gibbs, Josiah Willard**(1839-1903) - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**Gibbs, Josiah Willard**(1839-1903)