# Principle of Finite Induction/One-Based

## Theorem

Let $S \subseteq \N_{>0}$ be a subset of the $1$-based natural numbers.

Suppose that:

- $(1): \quad 1 \in S$

- $(2): \quad \forall n \in \N_{>0} : n \in S \implies n + 1 \in S$

Then:

- $S = \N_{>0}$

## Proof 1

Consider $\N$ defined as a naturally ordered semigroup.

The result follows directly from Principle of Mathematical Induction for Naturally Ordered Semigroup: General Result.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof 2

Let $T$ be the set of all $1$-based natural numbers not in $S$:

- $T = \N_{>0} \setminus S$

Aiming for a contradiction, suppose $T$ is non-empty.

From the Well-Ordering Principle, $T$ has a smallest element.

Let this smallest element be denoted $a$.

We have been given that $1 \in S$.

So:

- $a > 1$

and so:

- $0 < a - 1 < a$

As $a$ is the smallest element of $T$, it follows that:

- $a - 1 \notin T$

That means $a - 1 \in S$.

But then by hypothesis:

- $\paren {a - 1} + 1 \in S$

But:

- $\paren {a - 1} + 1 = a$

and so $a \notin T$.

This contradicts our assumption that $a \in T$.

It follows by Proof by Contradiction that $T$ has no such smallest element.

Hence it follows that $T$ can have no elements at all.

That is:

- $\N_{>0} \setminus S = \O$

That is:

- $S = \N_{>0}$

## Sources

- 1971: Allan Clark:
*Elements of Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Properties of the Natural Numbers: $\S 20$ - 1971: Robert H. Kasriel:
*Undergraduate Topology*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.17$: Finite Induction and Well-Ordering for Positive Integers: $17.1$ - 1982: P.M. Cohn:
*Algebra Volume 1*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $2$: Integers and natural numbers: $\S 2.1$: The integers: $\mathbf{I}$

- 1972: A.G. Howson:
*A Handbook of Terms used in Algebra and Analysis*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 4$: Number systems $\text{I}$: Peano's Axioms - 2008: Paul Halmos and Steven Givant:
*Introduction to Boolean Algebras*... (previous) ... (next): Appendix $\text{A}$: Set Theory: Induction