Each of the parties involved in a game are called players.
In the context of game theory, a player may not necessarily be a person acting alone.
A group of people who are collaborating in a game, for example, the members of a football team, can be considered to be a single player.
- Definition:Rational Decision-Maker: a player is assumed to make decisions consistently to maximise payoff.
- Definition:Intelligent Player: a player is assumed to know everything there is to know about the game and can make any inferences necessary.
- 1983: Morton D. Davis: Game Theory (revised ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$: An Overview
- 1991: Roger B. Myerson: Game Theory ... (previous) ... (next): $1.1$ Game Theory, Rationality, and Intelligence
- 1994: Martin J. Osborne and Ariel Rubinstein: A Course in Game Theory ... (previous) ... (next): $1.2$: Games and Solutions