# Definition:Inverse Cosine/Complex

## Definition

### Definition 1

Let $z \in \C$ be a complex number.

The inverse cosine of $z$ is the multifunction defined as:

$\cos^{-1} \left({z}\right) := \left\{{w \in \C: \cos \left({w}\right) = z}\right\}$

where $\cos \left({w}\right)$ is the cosine of $w$.

### Definition 2

Let $z \in \C$ be a complex number.

The inverse cosine of $z$ is the multifunction defined as:

$\cos^{-1} \left({z}\right) := \left\{{\dfrac 1 i \ln \left({z + \sqrt{\left|{z^2 - 1}\right|} e^{\left({i / 2}\right) \arg \left({z^2 - 1}\right)} }\right) + 2 k \pi: k \in \Z}\right\}$

where:

$\sqrt{\left|{z^2 - 1}\right|}$ denotes the positive square root of the complex modulus of $z^2 - 1$
$\arg \left({z^2 - 1}\right)$ denotes the argument of $z^2 - 1$
$\ln$ denotes the complex natural logarithm considered as a multifunction.

## Arccosine

The principal branch of the complex inverse cosine function is defined as:

$\map \arccos z = \dfrac 1 i \map \Ln {z + \sqrt {z^2 - 1} }$

where:

$\Ln$ denotes the principal branch of the complex natural logarithm
$\sqrt {z^2 - 1}$ denotes the principal square root of $z^2 - 1$.