# Definition:Vector (Linear Algebra)

*This page is about vector in the context of vector spaces. For other uses, see Definition:Vector.*

## Contents

## Definition

Let $V$ be a vector space.

Any element $v$ of $V$ is called a **vector**.

## Vector Notation

Several conventions are found in the literature for annotating a general vector in a style that distinguishes it from a scalar, as follows.

Let $\set {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}$ be a collection of scalars which form the components of an $n$-dimensional vector.

The vector $\tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}$ can be annotated as:

\(\displaystyle \bsx\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}\) | $\quad$ | $\quad$ | |||||||||

\(\displaystyle \vec x\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}\) | $\quad$ | $\quad$ | |||||||||

\(\displaystyle \hat x\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}\) | $\quad$ | $\quad$ | |||||||||

\(\displaystyle \underline x\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}\) | $\quad$ | $\quad$ | |||||||||

\(\displaystyle \tilde x\) | \(=\) | \(\displaystyle \tuple {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}\) | $\quad$ | $\quad$ |

To emphasize the arrow interpretation of a vector, we can write:

- $\bsv = \sqbrk {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}$

or:

- $\bsv = \sequence {x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n}$

In printed material the boldface $\bsx$ is common. This is the style encouraged and endorsed by $\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$.

However, for handwritten material (where boldface is difficult to render) it is usual to use the **underline** version $\underline x$.

Also found in handwritten work are the **tilde** version $\tilde x$ and **arrow** version $\vec x$, but as these are more intricate than the simple underline (and therefore more time-consuming and tedious to write), they will only usually be found in fair copy.

It is also noted that the **tilde** over $\tilde x$ does not render well in MathJax under all browsers, and differs little visually from an overline.

The **hat** version $\hat x$ usually has a more specialized meaning, namely to symbolize a unit vector.

In computer-rendered materials, the **arrow** version $\vec x$ is popular, as it is descriptive and relatively unambiguous, and in $\LaTeX$ it is straightforward.

However, it does not render well in all browsers, and is therefore (reluctantly) not recommended for use on this website.

Because of this method of rendition, some sources refer to vectors as **arrows**.

## Also see

## Sources

- 1961: I.M. Gel'fand:
*Lectures on Linear Algebra*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$: $n$-Dimensional vector spaces - 1965: Seth Warner:
*Modern Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 26$ - 1969: C.R.J. Clapham:
*Introduction to Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $7$: Vector Spaces: $\S 32$. Definition of a Vector Space - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {B}.26$: Extensions of the Complex Number System. Algebras, Quaternions, and Lagrange's Four Squares Theorem